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Full text of "A history and description of Chinese porcelain"

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Group of Sung Porcelain. 

Buddhist Vase of Ju-choii porcelain (in centre) modelled in 
strong relief, with a circle of twelve standing figures round 
the shoulder, a seated figure of Sakyamuni Buddha with 
two attendants on the neck within a ring of alternating 
lotus flowers and serpents, and a dragon coiled round the 
rim guarding a disk supported on clouds. Covered with a 
celadon glaze of greyish-green colour and crackled surface, 
terminating below in a curved unctuous hne before it 
reaches the foot of the vase. On the stand is carved in 
gilded letters Jii-yao Kuan-yin Tsun — i.e. " Kuan-yin 
vase of Ju(chou) porcelain," and underneath, in relief, the 
seal of Liu Yen-t'ing. (H. 19 in.) 

Quadrangular Vase of Tmg-chou porcelain (on right), with 
brocaded grounds and borders of spiral fret lightly en- 
graved in the paste under a characteristic, soft, minutely- 
crackled glaze of creamy Avhite tone. Also from the 
collection of Liu Yen-t'ing. (H. 13i in.) 

Shallotv Bowl of Ting-chou porcelain worked in relief with 
panels containing fruit, flowers, and butterflies within a 
spiral border. Rim bound Avith a copper collar. (Diam. 

n in-) 
Tazza-shaped Boivl of Lung-ch'iian ware, with a small floral 

medallion engraved inside, invested with a green celadon 

glaze. (H. 5 in., d. 5^ in.) 

Small Vase of Kuan-yao covered with a thick, finely-crackled 

glaze of pale purplish blue. (H. 3 J in.) 

(Bushell Collection.) 



Chinese Porcelain 






Edition for America A. WESSELS COMPANY 

Imported by 7-9 West i8th Street 



THEr • 

The Three-Colour and Half-Tone Blochs for this work were made by 
Messrs. Andre & Sleigh, Ltd., Bushey, Herts. 



Preface ix 



Period I. Before a.d. 960 13 

„ II. 960-1367 (Sung and Yuan) 17 

„ III. 1368-1643 (MlNO) 25 

„ IV. 1644-1901 (Ch'ing) 38 


Class I. Porcelain Not Painted : 

Section A. Plain White 49 

„ B. Single-coloured Glazes .... 54 

„ C. Glazes of Several Colours ... 64 

„ II. Crackle Porcelain 66 

„ III. With White Slip Decoration 69 

„ IV. Painted Porcelain : 

Section A Painted in Blue under the Glaze (Blue 

and White) 70 

„ B. Painted in Blue, with other Colours 

UNDER the Glaze 116 

„ C. Painted in Colours over the Glaze . 118 

„ V. With Pierced Ornament under the Glaze . . 136 

Other Classes of Chinese Porcelain 137 

Marks on Chinese Porcelain 140 

Mythical Personages represented on Chinese Porcelain . 152 

Fabulous Animals represented on Chinese Porcelain . . 156 

Glossary 159 

Bibliography 161 

Descriptive List of Half-Tone Illustrations .... 164 



I. — Group of Simg porcelain ..... 

II. — Roiind box and cover of Ch'eng-hua blue and white 
III. — Large jar of Chia-ching blue and white 
IV. — Vase, jars, and beakers of Ming " five-colour " porcelain 
V. — Massive pierced jar of early Ming period 
VI. — Wine jug, mounted in Elizabethan silver-gilt 
VII.— Small sang-de-boeuf vase ...... 

VIII. — Plum-blossom jar, with bell-shaped cover 
IX. — Egg-sheU plate, decorated in over-glaze blue. 

X. — Large vase, with black enamelled ground 
XI. — Large vase, with bright green ground . 
XII. — Four-sided dragon-handled vase, with j-ellow ground 
XIII. — Vase painted in colours of the grand feu 
XIV. — Vase, with figures executed in relief 
XV. — Beaker-shaped vase, with magnolias on blue backgrounds 
XVI. — Blue and white vase and cover, with ladies and flowers 
XVII. — Tall vase, famille verte, of the K'ang-hsi period . 
XVIII. — Vase, decorated in coral red ..... 

XIX. — Pilgrim vase of turquoise crackle .... 

XX. — Small crackled vase of streaked fiamhe purple 
XXI. — Openwork lantern of the Ch'ien-limg period. 
XXII. — Ruby-backed egg-shell plate, with seven diapered border 
XXIII. — Famille rose jar, with cover ..... 

XXIV. — Six small monochrome vases ..... 



■ To face page 




























^ )> 












*> )> 








1. — Hexagonal lantern, with flowers, birds, and butterflies 
2. — Ming blue and white, mounted in Elizabethan silver gilt . 
3. — Polychrome vase, v.-iih relief panels and brocaded grounds 
4. — Fu Hsing, god of happiness ...... 

5. — Lu Hsing, god of rank. ... . . . . 

6. — Shou Hsing, god of longevity ...... 

To face page 










riG. To face page 

7. — Tiger-spotted dish of imperial ware ....... 16 

8. —Purple and turquoise figure of Lan Teai-ho ..... 25 

9. — Imperial dragon fish-bowl of the Wan-li period, decorated in colours 28 
10. — Ming "five-colour" beaker, with ladies and children, flowers and fruit 30 
11. — Jar of Ming period, painted with polychrome enamels ... 33 

12, —Peach-shaped wine-pot: turquoise and aubergine .... 35 

13. — Squirrel and grapes: San-ts'ai water-pourer ■. . . . .35 

14. — Triple gourd vase, painted in brilliant enamel colours with gilding . 40 
16. — Yung-chSng fish-bowl, painted in colours ...... 44 

16. — Ch'ien-lung vase, 62 in. high, decorated ia. famille rose enamels . 46 

17. — Figure of Kuan Ti, god of war, in Fuchien blanc de chine ... 53 

18. — Group of Fuchien and Ching-te-chen white 50 

19. — Four-legged censer, with cover of turquoise crackle .... 56 

20. — Blue and white, with bands of brown and rings of crackled and 
celadon .......... 

21. — Celadon vase sur decoree with enamels of the mufile stove . 
22. — Old yellow crackle vase [mi-se) ...... 

23. — Chocolate with white slip in relief {pdte-sur-pdte) 

24. — Blue and white aster dish ....... 

25. —Kuan Yin, the Chinese goddess of mercy .... 

26. — Lung-ch'ing blue and white, with imperial dragons and phoenixes 
27. — Powder blue, with polychrome decoration in reserved panels 

28. — Blue and white gi»ger jar 

29. — Jar inscribed "wedded joy," for trousseau .... 
30. — Blue and white flanged bowl ...... 

31. — Blue and white "Hawthorn bottle" 

32. — Medallions on a green ground strewn with a hundred flowers 

33. — K'ang-hsi vase, decorated with lions and brocaded balls 

34. —Lion-handled wine-pot, enamelled with black and yellow ground: 

35. — Three snuff-bottles, painted in blue and white 

36. — Maitreya Buddha, the Buddhist Messiah .... 

37. — Tai-po Tsun : a writer's water-pot ..... 

38. — Three-colour decoration snr biscuit ..... 

39. — K'ang-hsi vase, decorated with po-ku emblems 

40. — Vase enamelled with the flowers of the four seasons . 

41. — Thi-ee egg-shell dishes, painted in enamels of the early famille rose style 

42. — Vase entirely painted with copper-red of the grand feu 

43. — Imperial Ch'ien-lung vase, decorated in Ku-yueh HsUan style 

44 & 45. — Peking graviata ware of Ch'ien-lung and Tao-kuang periods 

46. — The Crucifixion : Chinese copy of European engraving 

47 & 48. — Two plates of "armorial china" from Guernsey 

49. — K'ang-hsi vase: Laquve biirgautee porcelain 

50. — Wine-pot in the form of Fu character . . . ■ 

51. — Wiae-pot in the form of vShou character .... 

52. — Ch'ien-lung blue and white, with eight Taoist emblems, etc. 
53. — Chinese lion in white porcelain ...... 

64. — Kylin proper in white porcelain ...... 


I CANNOT begin a preface to the last work of my much-regretted 
friend Mr. Cosmo Monkhouse without a word to express my 
deep feeUng of his irreparable loss. The vanished hand will 
be more especially missed as that of a cultivated critic of the 
fascinating art of the Chinese potter. His loving appreciation 
of the decorative value of the porcelain of the Far East was 
fully shown in the scholarly introductions he wrote for the 
catalogues of the collections of " Blue and White " and " Coloured 
Oriental Porcelains," which were exhibited at the Burlington 
Fine Arts Club in 1895 and 1896. No pen has ever painted 
more vividly the charm of the changes which the Chinese 
ring with varied tones of cobalt blue pulsating from the 
depths of a pellucid glaze; the brilhant ruby-like depth of 
the sang-de-hoeuf and the soft sheen of the peaio-de-peche, in 
which they have ennobled the copper silicates ; or the perfect 
harmony of the pictures painted with delicate enamel colours 
upon a translucent egg-shell ground, which marks the cul- 
minating point of their consummate mastery of the technique 
of the potter's art. 

But all these points are better emphasised in the pages 
of the book which it has been my privilege to look through 
before its publication. The text was really ready for the 
Press, and I have only ventured to add an occasional ex- 
planatory note, always carefully initialed. The coloured plates 
were also finished, so that it only remained for me to 


select a series of typical pieces for reproduction in black-and- 
white, and to write a short description of the illustrations. 
There is such a wonderful exhibition of Chinese ceramic 
art at the present moment in the halls of the Victoria 
and Albert Museum at South Kensington that it must be 
my own fault if a fairly representative series is not presented 
here. I am sure that Mr. Monkhouse would not have been 
sparing in his thanks to Mr. G. Salting for the generous 
way in which he has placed his magnificent collection at 
our disposal, and to Mr. A. B. Skinner for the personal interest 
he has taken in furthering the preparation of the pictures. 
Acknowledgments are also due to M. Solon, foremost of art 
potters of the day, for kindly revising the proofs ; so that any 
of the technical points involved may be taken without further 

Chiuese porcelain has always attracted artists. Jules Jacque- 
mart, the prince of etchers, lavished no little skill in the 
many illustrations which he supplied for his brother Albert's 
interesting but somewhat discursive works on the subject. 
Mr. Whistler, in his drawings made for Sir Henry Thomp- 
son's " Catalogue of Blue and White Porcelain," conveys, 
with the free stroke of his brush, the very touch and spirit 
of the original decorator. Mr. Louis Prang, in his turn, has 
devoted infinite pains to the composition of the sumptuous 
chromo-lithographs of pieces in the Walters' Collection at 
Baltimore, which Mr. Monkhouse notices as " almost per- 
fect." Yet, perhaps, the newer methods of colour process 
in the plates which follow will be found to give a touch 
of actuality which has hitherto been wanting. They appeal 
to me, at least, as a sufiicient memoria technica of the originals, 
which are, it may be added, for the most part available 
for comparison to anyone interested in the question. 



A word may not be out of place here on the transKteration 
of Chinese characters into English. The system which has 
been adopted is that of Sir Thomas Wade, now almost uni- 
versally followed in China. It forms the basis of our two 
best Chinese dictionaries, the large work of Professor Giles 
and the small, inexpensive " Pocket Dictionary " of the Rev. 
C. Goodrich, Peking, 1891, which everyone should possess. 
In this system, vowels and diphthongs are pronounced as in 
Italian, consonants as in English. Some consonants at the 
beginning of words may be aspirated, such as ch, k, p, and t, 
when they have an apostrophe affixed, and are written cJi, k', 
p\ and t' ; t'a, for example, being pronounced like " hit hard," 
with the first tAvo and last two lettei-s omitted. The softening 
of the initials k and ts before certain voAvels, by which the 
name of the famous emperor of the eighteenth century is 
written Ch'ien-lung instead of K'ien-limg, and the Ming 
emperor Kia-tsing has become Chia-ching, is due to a Avell- 
known philological law. The author has not attempted, and 
indeed it would be impossible, to make the spelling uniform 
throughout, as it is often that of older books from which 
passages have been quoted. 

Chinese chronology is generally based on lists of the 
reigns of the emperors arranged in successive cycles of sixty 
years, the cycle taking the place of our century. It must 
be noted that the whole of the year in which an emperor 
dies is always attributed to his reign, so that the reign of his 
successor only begins on the first day of the next year, when 
a new nien-hao is adopted for the new reign. Inattention to 
this little point has often been the source of a discrepancy in 
European books which is occasionally, it must be confessed, 
reflected in some of the quotations here. 

It is well to be fairly familiar with the Chinese marks, 

xii PRE FACE. 

although they are not always to be implicitly relied upon, 
being attached sometimes to indicate the peculiar style of 
decoration, sometimes even with a dehberate intention to 
deceive. A particular piece of porcelain must be examined 
as carefully as an old picture, the quality of the paste, texture 
of the glaze, and technique of colouring being severally con- 
sidered, as well as the form and the style of decoration. The 
Chinese say that to be a connoisseur " one must see much with 
seeing eyes." According to Mr. Monkhouse, "the best judge 
may be said to be the man who has the subtlest perception 
of small distinctions." It is hardly necessary for me to add 
that no better guide for the uninitiated as to what are the 
nice points of distinction to be looked for in the different 
monochrome glazes and the several characteristic styles of 
decoration could be wished for than Mr. Monkhouse, most 
accomplished of critics in this special branch of Oriental art. 


(Late Physician to H. M. Legation, Peking). 



A S I had already spent much time in trying to master what 
-^-^ Avas known of the history of Chinese porcelain, and had for 
many years been much interested in studying specimens of it, I 
undertook the compilation of this little handbook with a some- 
what light heart. Like many others who attempt the instruction 
of their fellows, I had not got far when I became convinced of 
the insufficiency of my equipment, and that in order to reduce 
this to more reasonable dimensions it was necessary for me 
to go to school again. I was indeed somewhat encouraged 
to find that Dr. Bushell, the physician to the British Embassy 
at Peking, whom I regarded as the greatest authority on 
the subject, had reviewed with great kindness my Prefaces to 
the Exhibition of Oriental Porcelain at the Burlington Fine 
Arts Club in 1895 and 1896, but it was fi-om the same kindly 
hand that I received the severest shock to that complacent view 
of my competence Avdth which I entered on my task. This 
was not caused by any adverse criticism of my own writings, 
but simply by the announcement of a new book by himself. 
I had already read, and marked, and to a certam extent 
learnt and inwardly digested, a most interesting and valuable 
pamphlet by him, in which he gives an account of an illus- 
trated catalogue of a Chinese collection of the sixteenth 
century * ; but what (comparatively speaking) was the use of 

* "Chinese Porcelain before the Present Dynasty" (extract from the Journal 
of t fie Peking Oriental Sotiety), Peking, 1886. 



the knoAvledge so acquii-ed if the same author was going to 
publish a vast book deahng with the whole history of Oriental 
Porcelain from its birth to the present day ? And this was 
precisely what Dr. Bushell did in his great work, " Oriental 
Ceramic Art, illustrated with one hundred and sixteen plates 
in colours and four hundred and thirty-seven black and white 
cuts reproducing specimens in the collection of W. T. 
Walters, with a complete history of Oriental Porcelain, includ- 
ing processes, marks, etc., by Dr. S. W. Bushell, physician to 
H.B.M. Legation, Peking, and an introduction and notes by 
William M. Laftan (D. Appleton and Co., New York)." I give 
the complete title in the hope that it may take away the 
breath of the reader as it did mine. I will add that the 
work is in ten sections of the largest and most inconvenient 
size, and the price is $500. Out of mercy to his subscribers 
the present Mr. Walters (the late Mr. William Thompson 
Walters, the founder of the collection and projector of the 
book, died in 1894) has recently given to them a copy of the 
letterpress printed separately ; but this mercy was not for 
me, who had to undergo an exhausting combination of mental 
and physical exertion before I arrived at the last pages. Let 
not anybody think, however, that I mean to disparage in any 
way this princely book. Its only defect, its unwieldiness, is 
but a defect of one of its qualities, its almost perfect chromo- 

In the Introduction to the Catalogue of the late Sir Wollas- 
ton Franks's Collection of Oriental Porcelain (2nd edition, 
1878), then lent for exhibition at the Bethnal Green Museum, 
it was stated that " all we know respecting the fabrics of [China] 
is derived from the valuable history of the manufactory of 
King-te-chin [Ching-te-chen] prepared by a local magistrate 
in 1815 from older native documents, and which has been 
most ably translated and commented upon by M. Stanislas 
Julien.""^ But since Julien's well-known work, considerable 

* "Hiatoire de la Fabrication de la Porcelaine Chinoise" (Paris, 1856). 


Round Box and Cover of Ch'eng-hiia Blue and White. Painted 
in the miniature style of the time with cobalt blue of 
greyish tone. WitJiin the bowl a literary graduate is seen 
poised on the head of a dragon holding a sprig of olea 
fragrans, emblem of success, in a round medallion sur- 
rounded by a broad band of jflowers and butterflies. Outside, 
a band of five mailed warriors on horseback ride round in 
procession. Inside the cover a lady is standing on a 
balcony under a willow with playing children, beside lotus 
flowers blossoming in a lake. Outside is a garden scene, 
ladies disporting with fans and guitars, and children play- 
ing with toys. Underneath, pencilled in blue, there is an 
oblong panel with the mark — Ta Ming Ch'eng hua nien 
chih : " Made in the reign of Ch'eng-hua (1465-87) of the 
Great Ming (Dynasty)." (D. 7 in.) {Bushell Collection.) 

. r-. 1 



additions have been made to our knowledge. Of these later 
publications those to which I have been most indebted are 
the works of Dr. Bushell, already refeiTed to ; Dr. Hirth's 
" Ancient Porcelain, a Study in Chinese Medieeval Industry and 
Trade (Leipsic and Munich: Georg Hirth, 1888)"; Grandi- 
dier's " La Ceramique Chinoise (Paris, 1894)," and " The 
History of Ceramic Art in China, by Alfred E. Hippisley, 
with Catalogue of the Hippisley Collection on loan to the 
Smithsonian Institution at Washington " (included in Report 
of the Institution for 1888). 

The value of these books consisted not only in the addi- 
tion of new facts but in the correction of certain mistakes 
in M. Julien's translation from the Chinese. Though a good 
Chinese scholar he was not an expert in ceramics, and he 
appears to have worked without reference to specimens of 
the different kinds of porcelain described in his text. In 
consequence, it is often difficult to identify existing pieces 
as belonging to any particular kind which he describes. The 
word ch'ing, which may mean either "blue" or "green," is 
often translated " blue " where it means " green," with the 
result that the old celadon or jade-coloured porcelains are 
described as blue. This is an error of great importance, 
especially in reference to the period before the Ming Dynasty, 
when probably the majority of pieces of porcelain (certainly 
the majority of those that are left to us) were covered with 
a celadon glaze. Another source of confusion in Julien's 
translation, according to Dr. Hirth, is the word translated 
"flowers." This word in the original does not necessarily 
mean flowers, but is applied to any kind of ornament, so that 
although we are told that a fair potter, named Chou (under 
the Sung Dynasty, 960-1279), was celebrated for decorating 
her vases with flowers, we cannot be sure that she ever used 
what we call flowers as motives for decoration. 

The special distinction of Dr. Bushell's fresh contribu- 
tions to our knowledge is that he has drawn a great deal of 


information from Chinese sources hitherto unrevealed to Euro- 
pean readers. Foremost amongst these is the work called " T'ao 
Shuo," or " A Description of Chinese Pottery," in six books, 
which was published in 1774 by Chu Yen. This work (some 
translated extracts from which are to be found in Dr. Hirth's 
pamphlet) quotes many of the older writers and describes all 
the varieties of the potter's skill which became celebrated 
before the close of the Ming Dynasty in 1643. This work 
has been translated by Dr. Bushell, and though his transla- 
tion has not been published in full, it has been of great value 
in the production of his work on " Oriental Ceramic Art." It 
is to be hoped that a project to publish this translation, 
together with an amended one of the " Ching-te-chen T'ao 
Lu" (the original of JuHen's book), will be carried into effect 
before long. 

If not so important to the historian, of still more value 
and interest to the collector, is the illustrated catalogue 
of a Chinese collection of the sixteenth century, already 
mentioned. The original was a manuscript with coloured 
drawings of eighty-two choice specimens. Its author was 
Hsiang Yuan-p'ien, styled Tzu-ching, known as a scholar 
and " a skilful painter of landscapes and old trees, as well 
as of the flowering plum and of orchids." The original of 
this MS. was unfortunately destroyed in a fire at "Wliiteley's, 
but I have seen a copy of it, made with Chinese fidelity 
(illustrations and all), which is in the possession of Dr. BusheU, 
and a translation of its text is included in each of the works 
by Dr. Bushell before referred to. This catalogue throws 
much light on the taste of the Chinese connoisseur of the 
time, the kinds of porcelain which were then most rare and 
most prized, and the history of porcelain manufacture down 
to its date. Dr. Bushell kindly gave me his permission to 
make free with the information he has gathered fi-om this 
and other sources, and it will be seen that I have largely 
availed myself of his kindness, especially with regard to this 


{Famille verte.) 



catalogue. Dr. Hirth's pamphlet of 1888 contained much 
fresh information derived from personal study of Chinese 
documents, and is especially valuable for its study of old 
celadons and the mediasval pottery and porcelain trade of 
China with Japan, Arabia, India, Persia, Borneo, Java, 
and many other places as far south as Zanzibar. The 
charming treatise of M. Grandidier, and the scholarly intro- 
duction to Mr. Hippisley's catalogue, if not so rich in fresh 
material as the works of Hirth and Bushell, are worthy of 
serious attention, as the authors are sinologues and collectors 
of distinction. 

The earliest collection of Chinese porcelain of which Ave 
hear was that sent to Nured-din by his lieutenant Saladin 
in 1171. It consisted of forty pieces only, but that must have 
been quite a " collection " in those days. 

The oldest collection of Oriental porcelain in Europe is 
the Dresden collection, which was formed by Augustus the 
Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, between 
1694 and 1705, and is therefore composed mainly, if not 
wholly, of pieces produced during the period of K'ang-hsi 
(1662-1722), the second Emperor of the present Dynasty. The 
existing pieces of porcelain which can be identified as having 
been sent to Europe before the conclusion of the previous, 
or Ming, Dynasty are very few. A little ivory white plate set 
with rubies and emeralds in the Dresden Gallery is said to 
have been brought over by a Crusader from Palestine, and 
there is a white incense-burner at Venice said to have been 
brought there by Marco Polo, who visited China in 1280. We 
hear from Dr. Hirth of a considerable trade in porcelain by 
sea and land in the thirteenth century, but that beautiful 
substance must have been almost unknown in Europe till the 
fifteenth century, when we hear of it in France, Spain, and 
Italy. It probably came through Egypt, Morocco, or Venice. 

In 1487 the Soldan of Egypt sent some large porcelain 
vases to Lorenzo de' Medici at Florence. The oldest piece of 


Chinese porcelain in England is supposed to be a celadon 
cnp at New College, Oxford, which is said to have belonged to 
Archbishop Warham (Archbishop 1504-1532). Yet it may not 
be older than " some bowls of Oriental china, one of which was 
enclosed in massive silver gilt, Moresco pattern," which were 
given to Sir Thomas Trenchard in 1506 by Phihp of Austria 
and Joan, who had put into Weymouth and been entertained by 
Sir Thomas (see Marryat's " History of Pottery and Porcelain," 
and Hutchins's " History of Dorset "). The first direct con- 
signments of porcelain to Europe were carried in Portuguese 
vessels round the Cape of Good Hope in the sixteenth century, 
and a few pieces are still in existence in England mounted 
in silver-gilt of the time of Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603). 
These at least are Ming porcelain, principally "blue and 
white," produced in the reigns of Chia-ching (1522-1566) and 
Wan-h (1573-1619). 

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, especially the 
latter, large quantities of Chinese and Japanese porcelain were 
imported into Europe by the East India Companies of Holland, 
England, and other countries, and considerable collections were 
made, the remains of which are still to be found in the houses 
of many old families in Holland, France, and England. An 
artificial kind of porcelain was first made in Europe at 
Florence, under the patronage of the Medici, towards the 
close of the sixteenth century, and later on at Rouen and 
at St. Cloud ; but the production of true porcelain dates only 
from the establishment of the Dresden manufactory by 
Augustus II. in 1709. Long before that time the potters of 
Delft, Nevers and Rouen had produced a clever faience 
substitute which imitated, fairly enough, the external appear- 
ance of the genuine ware. Wilham III. brought with him 
to England a quantity of both the original and the Dutch 
imitations, some of which is still to be seen at Hampton 
Court Palace. I do not propose here to trace the history 
of the taste for Chinese porcelain step by step, but all who 



riLDEI- ■'"IONS. 


are acquainted with the literature of the eighteenth century and 
the prints of Hogarth must be aware how fiercely the " china 
mania" was raging in those days. And somewhat later did 
not Charles Lamb write : " I have an almost feminine par- 
tiality for old China. When I go to see any great house I 
inquire for the china closet, and next for the picture gallery " ? 
If we may judge from what follows, what he sought in 
the china cupboard were not pretty Dresden figures or 
Chelsea vases, but Chinese blue and white, "those little, 
lawless, azure-tinctured grotesques that under the notion of 
men and women float about, uncircumscribed by any element, 
in that world before perspective," a china teacup. Steady, 
however, as was the influx of Chinese porcelain into Europe, 
after a direct trade was established, it is evident that the pieces 
imported were, with few exceptions, of modern manufacture, 
made specially for the European market. In the first place, 
there was then no demand in Europe for the older ware, and, 
in the second, the Chinese were too fond of it themselves to 
let it go out of their country, where it was already extremely 
scarce. What Ming pieces were sent over were probably coarse 
pieces of blue and white of the Wan-li period, of which there 
was abundance ; and Dr. Bushell tells us that no specimens 
of one class of Ming porcelain, the " five colour," were ever 
sent over to Europe till within recent years. 

There was therefore this distinction at least between the 
old and the modern collector. The countess in Hogarth's 
" Marriage a la Qnode," Horace Walpole, and the proprietors of 
the great houses visited by Charles Lamb, knew little and cared 
little about the history of the "old china" they purchased. They 
bought it because it was grotesque or dainty, quaint or beautiful, 
and took its age for granted. The collector of thirty years ago 
was very different. He wished to combine both antiquity and 
beauty, and thought that the same rule applied to porcelain as 
to some other objects of art, viz. that beauty was a sign of age. 
There was much to encourage this view, as the wares produced 


in certain periods of the Ming Dynasty, e.g. Hsiian-te (1426- 
1485) and Ch'eng-hiua (1465-1487) were specially prized by the 
Chinese, and that most of the finest pieces in the market were 
marked with the date marks of these Emperors. It is now, 
however, generally known that nearly all these very fine pieces, 
notwithstanding their marks, were made in the reign of K'ang- 
hsi, a monarch of the present Dynasty (1662-1722) and belonged 
to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries instead of the 
fifteenth. It is evident from the catalogue of Tzii-ching that 
even before the close of the Ming Dynasty fine old pieces of 
the best periods were exceedingly scarce in China, and they 
must have been rarer still in the days of the Emperor Ch'ien- 
Lung (1736-1795), the author of a sonnet on the subject, written 
in 1776, which has been translated thus by Dr. Bushell — 

Yueh-chou porcelain* of the Li Dynasty of T'ang is no longer extant. 
The Imperial ware of the Chao house of Sung is rare as stars at dawn. 
Yet the ancient ritual vessels f of Yin and Chou abound in the present day ; 
Their material, bronze, is stronger ; vessels of clay are more fragile. 
But though strong and rude they last, the weak and polished perish ; 
So honest worth wears well in daily life, and should be ever prized. 
The Chu Dynasty of Ming, going back from to-day, is not so far remote ; 
And the artistic gems of Hsiian % and Ch'eng § may be seen occasionally. 
Their brilliant polish and their perfect colouring are universally lauded, 
And among them the " chicken " winecups are the very crown of all. 
The Mutan peonies under a bright sun opening in the balmy spring ; 
The hen and chicken close together, and the cock in all his glory, 
With golden tail and iron spurs, his head held straight erect, 
In angry poise ready for combat, as if he heard the call of Chia Ch'ang. 
The clever artist has rendered all the realistic details 
In a style handed down from old time, varying in each period ; 
But I will think only in my own mind of the ancient odes of Ch'i, 
And not dare to cherish personal ease when it is time to rise early. 

Some disappointment was no doubt caused to many col- 
lectors when they were forced to the conclusion that some of 

* Yueh-yao, a blue porcelain made at Yueh-chou. 

t Most of the porcelain vessels of the Sung Dj-nasty were modelled after bronze 

% Hsiian-tS (1426-143.5). 
§ Ch'eng-hua (1465-1487). 

Fig. 3 —polychrome vase, with 
belief panels and bpvo- 
caded grounds. 





their pieces, so fondly prized as true Ming, were probably much 
later, but this disappointment has been greatly mitigated by the 
discovery that their other hypothesis was also false, and that 
the oldest porcelain was not the most beautiful. Collectors may 
now assure themselves that the date marks on porcelain are 
no guarantee of age, and that, even if genuine, they are no 
guarantee of beauty. 

But date marks are not the only sign of age, and, whether 
genuine or not, may be some guide to the character of the pieces 
as they are, or at least probably were, intended to distinguish 
the styles of the periods they signified. There are also in the 
paste, the glaze, the colour, and the decoration, certain tests 
which distinguish the true Ming from later ware. These are 
mostly of a negative kind. For instance, you may know that a 
piece is not a Ming piece if it is decorated with blue over the 
glaze, but that will not (by itself) tell you to what subsequent period 
it belongs. But I need not repeat here what I have said on 
this subject in other parts of this book — I will only say that 
connoisseurship in this direction has not made any great advance 
at present for want of historical knowledge, the opportunity for 
comparing a large number of doubtful specimens, and on 
account of the comparative lack of interest in Ming porcelain 
smce it has been shown to be generally inferior in aesthetic 
attraction to the best productions of the present Dynasty. The 
historical knowledge has, however, of late years much increased, 
and it is not impossible that a keener interest may soon be 
taken m the older and rougher ware, for even among lovers of 
china there are lovers of character as well as lovers of beauty, 
lovers of vigour as well as lovers of perfect workmanship. 

Indeed, collectors of all kinds may be divided broadly into 
Historical and xEsthetic — though the greater number have a 
little of both spirits. Certainly most modern English collectors 
of Chinese porcelain, like the late Dante Gabriel Rossetti and 
Sir Henry Thompson, Mr. Louis Huth and Mr. G. Salting, have 
a strong inclination to the aesthetic side ; the late Sir Wollaston 


Franks is almost a solitary instance of a great collector of 
porcelain whose sympathies were predominantly historical. The 
collection of Mr. George Salting, now lent to the Victoria and 
Albert Museum at South Kensington, and the Franks collection 
at the British Museum, are complements of each other, and 
together afford an almost perfect opportunity of studying 
Chinese porcelain from every point of view. For completeness 
of historical sequence the Franks collection is probably the finest 
in the world, and for " quality " it would be very difiicult to 
match Mr. Salting's. 

Such collections as these, or those of M. Grandidier (Louvre), 
Mr. Hippisley's at Washington, Mr. Walters' at New York, not 
to mention others, are growing daily more difficult, are now 
indeed almost impossible, to acquire. At least the attempt can 
only be made by those whose purses are very long. To such 
collectors this little book will be of slender service, and for the 
formation of such collections I can give few hints. Such words 
as I can say on collecting will be least useless to those who 
cannot afford to buy magnificent pieces, but still desire to possess 
interesting and beautiful ones. To these I would say that it 
is still possible to make a small collection of such specimens 
at a reasonable cost. I do not say it is easy to do this, for it 
needs taste, knowledge, and patience. By taste I do not mean 
what would be generally accepted as fine taste, for that is apt to 
alter with the fashion, but a genuine personal taste, which leads 
a man to take this because he likes it, and reject that because he 
does not. No one is an art collector in the truest sense who does 
not follow this simple but essential rule. He may need the 
advice of others in questions of authenticity, price, etc., but the 
impulse to acquire should come from within. Otherwise his 
collection, however fine, will be a part of his goods and chattels, 
not of himself ; he may be proud of it but it will never j' ield 
him the highest enjoyment of possession. Even to the casual 
spectator this exercise of individual taste will give a collector 
interest. The taste may be for the beautiful or the grotesque, 

Fig. 4. — Fu HsiXG, god of 





for form or colour, it may be as eccentric as it may, but the 
mark of personal preference will give it a character and an 
existence of its own. 

As to knowledge, the beginner should remember that book 
knowledge, however interesting, will not help greatly in the 
training of the eye, which is the most important part of a 
collector's education. The difference between what is finest and 
what is next fine is often a very slight one to ordinary unin- 
formed sight, and the best judge may be said to be the man 
who has the subtlest perception of small distinctions. To take 
a class of Chinese porcelain which has special attractions for the 
En^hsh collector — I mean "blue and white" — the variations in 
the blue and in the white also are almost infinite, and a 
perfectly trained eye should distinguish the best from the 
second best, not only when he sees them together, but when he 
sees them by themselves. This kind of knowledge is only to 
be acquired by frequent comparison. Much ma}^ be done by 
examination of fine collections, but there is no way so sure as 
the possession of one of your own that you can live with from 
day to day, and handle as much as you like. It is not necessary 
that the pieces you possess for such training purposes should be 
" important specimens," or even perfect. The very finest blue 
can be found in the very smallest pieces (perhaps the so-called 
hawthorn jars are an exception) and a mere fragment is enough 
for a test piece. There is no reason why a man should not train 
his eye so perfectly from a collection of small and even broken 
pieces, that he can scarcely be deceived by the cleverest forgery. 
But I do not suggest that he should confine his purchases to 
purely educational purposes. Let him " launch out " if he sees 
anything which seems to him specially desirable. He will no 
doubt make mistakes at first, but these will be not the least 
valuable part of his training as a connoisseur. Even connoisseurs 
are taken in sometimes. One of them gave me only a few days 
ago a Japanese copy of a piece of Wan-h porcelain, which he 
had bought as a companion to a genuine piece of his own. He 


did nordiscover the deception till he compared the two minutely. 
What is true of "blue and white" is also true of glazes and 
enamels — an eye can in either case be thoroughly trained only 
by^ constant and close comparison of many pieces. Nor is it 
only the eye that has to be trained ; there are subtle differences 
of surface which can be detected only by the touch. 

Patience is, I need scarcely say, a requisite for all collectors, 
whether rich or poor. The former, indeed (except in the case of 
extraordinary pieces, for which there is a competition of purses), 
need only wait till a coveted piece appears ; but the poorer, with 
whom, I confess, I have a greater sympathy, have to wait till 
they can obtain it at a modest price. A bargain is dear to all 
collectors, and in stalking it and securing it there is real and 
legitimate "sport." The true sportsman will indeed disdain 
certain fields, especially the cottages of the poor ; but auction 
rooms and shops are fair game, and a man of fine taste and 
sound knowledge may sometimes secure unexpected treasures, 
even at Christie's and some of the finest shops. These, indeed, 
will seldom belong to the more fashionable kinds, like brilliant 
blue and white or ruby-backed egg-shell plates, but they may be 
still greater treasures to the true collector, whose taste is not 
regulated by market prices. 

i - .. ■ 

//T" .MA rill 

Fia. 5.— LU HSIXO, GOD OF 


^_\. i. 



Part L 


The History of Chinese Porcelain may be divided into four 
great periods. 

Period I., of which no specimens exist, extends from 
the disputed date when porcelain was discovered to the Sung 
Dynasty, which commenced in a.d, 960. 

Period II., from the commencement of the Sung Dynasty 
to the commencement of the Ming Dynasty, when there 
was no painted decoration (960-1367), and all colour was 
contained in the glaze. 

Period III., the Ming Dynasty, during which decoration 
was mainly confined to painting under the glaze and coloured 
glazes, but over-glaze enamels were introduced (1368-1643). 

Period IV., from the close of the Ming Dynasty to the 
present time, when decoration with over-glaze enamels was 
bi'ought to perfection (1644-1901), 

Period I. Before a.d. 960. 

As no specimens exist, or at least can be identified, ot 
porcelain produced before the commencement of the Sung 
Dynasty (a.d. 960), the interest of the collector in the history 
of porcelain before this date consists principally in the solu- 
tion of a few doubts. 

The most important of these is the date at which porce- 
lain was first invented — meaning by porcelain a substance 


showing an incipient vitrification of the mass and translucid. 
It differs from nearly all pottery or faience in both these 
respects,* and from stoneware in being translucid. The 
Chinese are not so particular; they apply their equivalent for 
porcelain {Tzu) to stoneware which has a good ring ; so that 
if it should be discovered beyond doubt when TzYo was first 
made, we should still be in doubt as to the date of the 
discovery of porcelain, as that word is used in Europe. 

There is no doubt that a vitrified stoneware, with a good 
ring, was made in China before what we call porcelain, and 
much of comparatively late Chinese ware, which is covered with 
single glazes, is of this character, and diflicult to distinguish if 

The claims to the antiquity of porcelain put forward by 
Chinese historians go back to the prehistoric Emperor Huang-ti, 
who is stated to have commenced a reign of one hundred years 
in 2697 B.C., and the legendary Emperor Yu-ti-Shun is stated to 
have himself made porcelain before he ascended the throne in 
2265 B.C. 

These claims appeared for a while to be supported by the 
discovery of some little Chinese bottles in Egyptian tombs 
dating from at least 1800 B.C. (Rosellini : / tnonumenti dell' 
Egitto, 1834), but their title to such remote antiquity was 
destroyed by their own inscriptions, which were in a grass or 
cursive character not introduced till 48 B.C., and were quotations 
from poems written during the T'ang Dynasty (a.d. 618-906). 

We have something like trustworthy evidence that porcelain 
was made during this Dynasty, if not before. 

We have Chinese records of two kinds of ware made under 
the Sui Dynasty (581-617) which may have approached very 
nearly to porcelain — (1) a green porcelain manufactured under 
Ho Chou, or Ho-Kuei-lin, president of the Board of Works, as a 
substitute for glass, the secret of making Avhich had been lost ; 

* The finer pottery of Persia is translucid, although the vitrification has not 
reached the same degree. 



and (2) a ware produced by a man named T'ao-Yti, which was 
like jade (a semi-transparent stone like semi-opaque glass). 
The reputed name of the workman means " pottery jade," and 
is probably the name of the ware and not of its maker, unless 
it was a nicloiame. 

At the close of the Sui or the beginning of the T'ang Dynasty 
a porcelain, white in colour and bright as jade, was made by 
Ho Chung-ch'u, a Avorkman who came from Hsin-p'ing, a district 
in the State of Ch'en, corresponding with the modern Huai- 
ning district in Honan province."^ 

During the T'ang Dynasty no fewer than seven different 
descriptions of porcelain are enumerated, called after the 
different places where they were manufactured — Hung-yao, 
Shou-yao, Yo-yao, Wu-yao, Ting-yao, Yueh-yao, and Shu-yao. 
Some of these yaos may not have been what we call porcelain, 
but the Shu-yao, made at the city of Ta-i in the department 
of K'iung-chou, in the (present) Sze-chuan province, probably 
deserved this name, as it is described as snow-white in colour, 
with a clear ring, thin but strong, and graceful in shaj)e. 

Finally, any remaining doubt as to the manufacture of true 
porcelain under the T'ang Dynasty is removed by an Arab 
traveller of the ninth century, whose narrative is translated by 
Reinaud, Vol. I., p. 34. "There is," he relates, "in China a very 
fine clay with which they make vases, which are as transparent 

* This is an incorrect geographical identification by M. Stanislas Julien which 
has led most subsequent writers astray. Hsin-p'ing, as I have shown at some 
length in my '•' Oriental Ceramic Art," was the old name of the district in the 
province of Kiangsi, from 621 to 716, which was afterwards called Foil-Hang Hsien, 
and has kept this same name from 742 to the present day. This distidct, which is 
mentioned in the contemporary annals of the T'ang DjTiasty as having furnished 
supplies of porcelain for the imperial court as early as the seventh century, has 
been the seat of the imperial potteries since the year 1004, when Ching-te-chen was 
founded there. It is the chief source of kaolin in China, and the other materials 
used in the manufacture of porcelain are found in the vicinity, so that it is quite 
possible that the early production known at the time as " artificial jade " was 
intrinsically of the same nature as the translucent kaoiinic pottery which we call 
"porcelain."— S.W. B. 


as bottles : water is seen through them. These vases are made 
of clay." 

If the invention of porcelain dates no farther back than the 
ninth century (a.d.), the antiquity of that beautiful substance 
is very respectable. M. Stanislas Julien, the well-known 
translator from the Chinese of the History of King-te-tchin (or, 
as others prefer to spell it, Ching-te-chen), placed it in the Han 
Dynasty (206 B.C. to a.d. 220), and conjectures that it occurred 
between 185 B.C. and a.d. 87 ; but most later authorities, like 
du Sartel, Dr. Hirth, M. Grandidier, and Dr. Bushell, refer it to 
the T'ang Dynasty. On the other hand, the learned collector 
and Chinese scholar, Mr. Alfred E. Hippisley, still clings to 
the earlier theory, mainly on the ground that it was during 
the Han Dynasty that the word t'zu, now used by the 
Chinese to distinguish porcelain from pottery (t'ao), was 
first used. 

Even with the descriptions of porcelain made under the 
T'ang Dynasty, and the following five short-lived Dynasties, 
907 to 959, the collector has little concern, except in so far as 
they appear to have resembled the wares fabricated in later 
times. The majority of pieces were of that sea-green which is 
known as celadon, but yellow-black, blue, yellow, and Avhite 
porcelain were also made. The Emperor Shih-tsung (954-959) of 
the Alter Chou Dynasty, is specially celebrated in the history 
of Chinese ceramics for having issued an imperial order that 
porcelain intended for the palace should be " as blue as the 
clear sky after rain." It was made in the district of Pien, in 
the province of Honan, and is described as sky-blue in colour, 
thin as paper, and giving out a clear musical sound when 
struck. It is said that in subsequent years, when it became 
exceedingly rare, bits of it were treasured and used as cap 
ornaments or pendants to necklaces. It was called Yti-jao, 
" Imperial porcelain," and after the accession of the next 
Dynasty (Sung) Ch'ai-yao, Ch'ai being the Emperor's family 

Fig. T.— tiger-spotted dish of 



The most important event in the history of Chinese porce- 
lain, which occurred during this first period (i.e. before 960), 
was, except the invention of porcelain itself, the foundation 
by imperial decree of a manufactory at Chang-nan-chen, after- 
wards called Ching-te-chen after the Emperor Ching-te (1004- 
1007), who established another factory there, and ordered 
date marks to be inscribed under pieces made for the palace. 
Other private factories soon sprang up there, and it gradually 
became almost the only place where the fabrication of artistic 
china was carried on. But, during the Sung Dynasty, artistic 
porcelain was still made at many places. Imperial factories 
were established at Pien-liang, the present department of 
K'ai-feng in Honan province, between 1107 and 1117, where 
pieces of special quality were made for magistrates, and, when 
the Court removed south before the advancmg Mongols, at the 
southern capital, Hang-chou in Cheh-kiang province. 

Period II. (960-1367). 

Sung Dynasty (960-1279). 
Yuan Dynasty (1280-1367). 

During this period porcelain was decorated with several 
different colours, yellow, black, pm^ple, blue, etc., but the 
celadons predominated so much that it may not improperly be 
termed the Celadon period. They were made at several places 
and appear to have been of various tints and qualities, pale 
green, bluish green, deep onion, grass green, and the superior 
kind of imperial ware, emerald. These have been imitated 
over and over again from that time to this, and it would appear 
to be impossible to identify as genuine Sung pieces any except 
those produced at Lung-ch'lian, which had this peculiarity : The 
paste was of fine white clay, but where exposed to the fire the 
unglazed portions turned a rusty red. They are therefore 
identified by a ferruginous ring on the base or foot where the}' 
were unglazed. There are some celadons made of clay which is 


itself red, and many imitations in which the clay is white and 
the red ring has been artificially coloured ; but it is said by Dr. 
Hirth that the pure Lung-ch'tian can easily be distinguished 
from all imitations. The same peculiarity seems, however, to 
have belonged to some later celadons made by the brothers 
Chang. The older Lung-ch'tian dates from the end of the tenth 
or the beginning of the eleventh century, the celadons of the 
brothers Chang (Ko-yao, or Chang-j'^ao) to the twelfth century, 
but all seem to have been produced in the Lung-ch'iian district. 
But the most beautiful of all the celadons, superior to the 
imperial (Kuan-yao) and the Ko, were called pi-yao, and 
made at Juchou."^ xilthough the modern collector is not likely 
to come across any specimen of the rarer or more delicate kinds 
of the Sung celadons, he may be interested in reading descrip- 
tions of some of them by a Chinese connoisseur of the sixteenth 
century, when there were a few pieces left. 

" Incense Burner. Ting of Ta Kuan porcelain, i.e. imperial 
porcelain of the Sung Dynasty. Of rounded form with loop 
ears and three cylindrical feet, the body composed of three 
monstrous ogre-like faces with prominent features and pro- 
truding eyes, with the intervals filled up with thunder-scroll 
pattern finely engraved. Taken [that is, the shape and decora- 
tion taken] from the same collection of ancient bronzes as 
No. l.t The glaze is of a pale green colour, clear and lustrous, 
like a precious emerald in tint, the whole surface covered with 
marks like those of cracked ice. It is a rare example of the 
imperial ware of the period, and also came out of the palace. I 
saw it at Nanking, at the palace of the Governor, Chu Hung, 
Grand Tutor. (H. 4 in., diam. 4 in.) 2." 

" Ink Pallet. Yen, of Sung Dynasty Ta Kuan porcelain, 
made for the use of the Emperor. The outhne is like that of a 
vase with loop handles for passing string through to hang it on 

* The Buddhist lustration vase illustrated in Plate I. is given on the best 
Chinese authority as an example of Juchou porcelain of the Sung Dynasty.— S. W. B. 
t See page 21. 


Large Jar of Chia-ching Blue and White. Painted in shaded 
blues of the deep full tone characteristic of the period, 
with a picture of the Taoist genii worshipping the god of 
longevity. Shou Lao, with a nimbus encircling his pro- 
tuberant head, is seated with two attendants on a rock 
shadowed by pine and prunus trees, surrounded by his 
attributes, deer, tortoises, and storks : the roof of the 
Taoist paradise is seen half-hidden by clouds in the back- 
ground, the eight genii {pa hsien) occupying the fore- 
ground, while the twm merry genii and many other saints 
of the Taoist pantheon are represented on the back of the 
vase. Conventional floral borders complete the decoration. 
Underneath, within a sunk panel, is pencilled in blue the 
inscription — Ta Ming Chia ching nien chih : " Made in 
the reign of Chia-ching (1522-66) of the Great Ming 
(Dynasty)." (H. 21 in.) {Bushell Collection.) 





the wall. An oval is left imglazed in the centre for rubbing 
the ink on, showing the red paste; below, the margin is im- 
glazed ; the centre is decorated with the figure of an elephant, 
and with a mystic diagram above, engraved under the glaze, 
which is of light green colour and coarsely crackled. (L. 5^ in., 
br. 4 in.) 8." 

" Pencil Rest. Yen Shan, of Sung Dynasty Ko porcelain 
in the form of a peaked hill, from a bronze design of the 
Han Dynasty, covered with a pale green glaze coarsely crackled, 
of antique work and bright colour. (H. 1 in., 1. 4 in.) 11." 

" Tall Shaped Waterpot, with cover, Kao tsu tou Shui 
ch'eng of Sung Dynasty Lung Ch'iian porcelain. Decorated 
with chrysanthemum flowers and polyporus heads on the 
body, a formal leaf pattern round the knob on the cover, 
defined in deep emerald green, on a ground of pale green 
the tint of fresh moss. (H. 4 in.) 12." 

"Vase, Ku, of Ju porcelain of the Sung Dynasty. Of 
slender horn-like form, with wide spreading mouth [the so- 
called beaker shape] ; with ornaments in relief, grotesque 
heads with scrolls engraved on the body, palm leaves with 
scroll pattern on the neck; copied from an ancient bronze. 
Covered with a pale bluish green glaze coarsely crackled. 
Specimens of Ju chou porcelain are very rare, and when 
met with usually plates and bowls, A perfect unbroken 
flower vase like this is almost unique; and as it excels both 
Kuan and Ko porcelain both in form and glaze it is far more 
valuable. I saw it at the capital in the collection of Huang 
General of the Guards, and they told me that he had given 
150,000 cash for it. (H. 6* in.) 19." 

" Vase for washing brushes, Hsi of Sung Dynasty Tung- 
ch'ing porcelain. Of hexagonal form with lobed border, 
decorated in panels with formal sprays of flowers, plum 
blossom, polyporus fungus and grass, chrysanthemum, bamboo, 
etc., carved in relief under a glaze of bright green colour like 
precious jade, raised in faint millet-like tubercles. (H. 6 in.) 70. 


Thus Hsiang Yuan-p'ien, who flourished during the second 
half of the sixteenth century, styled Tzu-ching, a native of 
Chia-ho. The foregoing extracts are taken from a manu- 
script called " Illustrated Description of Celebrated Porcelain 
of Different Dynasties," which has been translated by Dr. 
BushelL Out of the eighty-two specimens described and 
figured in this work, forty- two are referred to the Sung 
Dynasty, only one to the Yuan, and thirty-nine to the Ming. 
Of the Sung pieces twenty-six are celadons, ten of which 
are imperial (Kuan or Takuan), eleven Lung-ch'iian, three 
Ju, and of Ko and Tung-ch'ing one each. It will be observed 
that in the description of the Ju piece, Tzu-ching saj's that 
this porcelain is very rare, and a perfect, unbroken flower 
vase of it almost unique. Most of the specimens were 
crackled, the crackle generally described as coarse, and the 
different shades of colour are likened to pale emerald, onion 
sprouts, greenish eggshell, grass and moss, while one or two 
are called bluish green. The decoration of celadons, and 
indeed of all Sung porcelain, was confined to engraving and 
modelling under the glaze, and though the terms painting 
and shading are used by Tzii-chmg, it is evident that he 
refers only to the application of more than one shade of 
glaze for the sake of variety or for the emphasis of certain 
parts of the engraved pattern. The filling of the engraved 
lines with the same coloured glaze would do the latter, as 
the deeper the line the deeper the colour. 

The coloured glazes other than green used in the Sung 
period were pale blue (called by the Chinese moon-white, 
by the French clair de lune), white, purple and black, red, 
deep blue, and glazes variegated in colour by accidental 
changes in the kihi. The pale blue was probably an imitation 
of the Shih-tsung, or Ch'ai " blue as the clear sky after rain " 
colour. It is also probably confounded with the celadons. 
But such pieces of the pale blue ol the Sung Dynasty as 
have survived are clearly of a pale cobalt blue tinged with 


lavender, or light purple from manganese.* The pieces are 
generally finely crackled, and often have streaks or " clouds " 
of the warmer purplish colour — sometimes approaching red. 
The most celebrated of the factories was that of Ting-chou, 
where brilliant white, purple, and black were produced from 
1111 to 1125. This was afterwards called Pei-ting or Northern 
Ting, to distinguish it from the ware of the same description 
afterwards made at Hang-chou, which was called Nan-ting or 
Southern Ting. It. often had marks like tears, due, it is 
supposed, to the glaze being sprinkled or blown on (souffle). 
The white in Tzu-ching's time was the most plentiful, then 
the purple, and rarest of all the black, of which he had seen 
only one specimen. He describes this as well as six of the 
white and four of the purple. Here are a few of the most 
interesting of these descriptions. 

" Incense Burner. Ting, of white Ting porcelain of the 
Sung Dynasty (960-1279). Of quadrangular form, with two 
loop handles, resting on four legs curving upwards at the feet, 
with antique design carved in high relief. Copied from a 
sacrificial vessel dedicated to the ancient sovereign Wen Wang 
figured in the Po-ku-t'ou of Hstian-ho (1119-1125). It wos 
made at the imperial manufactory, and is perfectly fashioned, 
and delicately engraved like bullock's hair or fine silk. The 
ting is square and upright, and stands without leaning a hair's 
breadth, aU its parts exactly proportioned. The glaze is uni- 
formly lustrous and translucent, hke mutton fat or fine jade. 
It is a choice specimen of the Ting-chou pottery, and stands 
pre-eminent among the sacrificial vessels of different potteries, 
such as is, alas, rarely to be seen in the present day. It was 
shown to me in the palace of the Prince of Chin, It had a 
stand and cover carved out of fragrant lign-aloes, crowned by a 
lizard of precious green jade. (H. 4-^- in., diam. 3J in.) 1." 

" Incense Burner. Ting, of purple Ting porcelain of the 

* The typical colour is shown in the small vase of the period illustrated in the 
left-hand comer of Plate I.— S. W. B. 


Sung DjTiasty. Of form similar to the last, taken from the 
K'ao ku t'ou, the body engraved with grotesque heads and scroll 
border above, a band of cicada-like foliations below. Covered 
with a bright purple glaze uniformly clear, a beautiful tint like 
that of ripe grapes. The Ting-chou porcelain is generally 
decorated with a white glaze, the purple and black glazes being 
much rarer. Such a fine example of the purple variety as this 
is seldom seen. I bought it for ten taels of silver at Peking 
from a dealer exhibiting at the Buddhist temple, Pao kuo sstt. 
(H. 3| in., diam. 4 in.) 3." 

"Duck-headed Vase. Fu Tsun, of Sung Dynasty, black 
Ting porcelain. Bottle-shaped, with swelling body and ringed 
neck, which curves over to end in a duck's head, a round 
orifice with small cover being on the convexity of the curve. 
The black colour is painted on the head and neck, gradu- 
ally fading away on the body of the vase, which is enamelled 
white. The black glaze is extremely rare in Ting-chou por- 
celain. I have seen hundreds of specimens of the white, scores 
of purple brown, but only this one of black in my whole life. 
(H. 6 in.) 35." 

The place at which the greatest variety of colours was pro- 
duced was Chun-chou. Tzu-ching says, " Of the colours used in 
decoration at this factory none excelled the vermilion red, and 
the aubergine purple, the moonlight white [clair de hcne], and 
pale green [celadon] being both inferior glazes." Here were 
also produced variegated vases, called yao pien, or " transmu- 
tation " vases, by the Chinese, and flambe by the French (see 
page 61). In the great Walters collection at New York is a 
flower pot ascribed by Dr. Bushell to this factory, which is of a 
very deep blue, clouded and streaked with bright red. Accord- 
ing to the T'ao shuo, or Treatise on Pottery, as translated by 
Dr. Bushell, " Among these porcelains [Ohiin], flower pots and 
saucers for growing sword-grass are the most beautiful " ; the 
others, namely, barrel seats, censers and boxes, square vases and 
jars with covers, were considered inferior on account of their 


yellowish, sandy paste. From the following descriptions of 
pieces by Tzu-ching, it is evident that Chiin porcelain varied 
much in quality and had increased in estimation in process of 
time. The potters of Chtin seem to have attempted innovations 
in both design and decoration, a dangerous thing to do in so 
conservative a country as China, and the " transmutation " vases 
in which the colours were accidentally variegated by the action 
of the kiln were at first looked upon as failures. 

"Small Jar. Hsiao Tsun, of Sung Dynasty Chiin porcelain, 
of globular form, with two boldly designed phoanixes moulded in 
high relief as handles, interrupting a border of spirally orna- 
mented medallions. The source of the design is unknown and 
probably was original, yet the workmanship and form are alike 
excellent, such as certainly could not have come from a common 
artificer. Chiin-chou porcelain is put at the bottom of the 
Sung potteries, yet a jar like this one, of elegant form, good 
colour, and fine engraved work, equals, if not excels, as a flower 
vase, one of Ju, Kuan, Ko, or Ting pottery. It is marked 

beneath with the numeral ivu IIT (five), an additional proof 

that it is really a Chiin piece. It is happily in my own collec- 
tion. (H. Sh in.) 20." 

" Miniature Bottle. P'ing, of Sung Dynasty Chtin porce- 
lain, with rounded body and folded bag-like mouth. Glaze of a 
variegated reddish-brown colour, such as is vulgarly called 
* ass's Uver ' or ' horse's lungs.' This is one of the tiniest of 
vases, being little more than an inch high, fit to hold a pearl 
orchid or a jasmine flower. 30." 

Under the Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty (1280-1367) the manufac- 
ture of porcelain is said to have deteriorated, but little is known 
about it. After naming the different wares produced under this 
Dynasty, Mr. Hippisley says (p. 408) : " No specimens of these 
wares have, however, so far as I am aware, survived to the 
present day, and among those which Chinese connoisseurs now 
declare to be real products of the Yuan Dynasty one seldom sees 


any but such as are of a uniform "whitisli purple, with deep red 
splashes. Tzu-ching describes but one piece of it only, as 
follows : — 

"Small Bottle-shaped Vase. Hsiao P'ing, of Shu-fu* 
porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty (12S0-1367), with globular body 
and expanded, garUc-shaped mouth. Decorated with dragons 
in the midst of clouds and lion's-head handles, all quaintly 
engraved in the paste imder a white glaze. The porcelain of 
our own [Ming] d}Tiasty of the reigns of Yung-lo and Hslian-te 
decorated with patterns engraved imder a white glaze, was made 
after this imperial porcelain. The Shu-fu porcelain itself was 
copied from the Ting chou porcelain of the Xorthem Sung 
Dynasty, and this bottle in its paste and form, in the colour of 
the glaze, and in the engraved design, is altogether like a Ting 
piece. In outline and size it is exactly fit for tlie Hbrary table 
to hold a spray of narcissus, begonia, gol^n lily, or dwarf 
chrysanthemum. This is aSo *^^m >my own collection. 
(H. 4 m.) ■ ^^ 21." 

Although it is only too probable that the English collector 
may never come across any real specimens of Sung porcelain, 
such an event is not by any means impossible, as specimens still 
exist, especially of the celadon class, and Tzti-ching's descriptions 
will aid him in identif)*ing them if he does so, or, at all events, in 
recognising later pieces which have been made on Sung models. 
He should remember that they were nearly all made in imitation 
of ancient bronzes as to shape and decoration, and, if not, in the 
shape of some natural object or fabulous animal,! that they were 
decorated with incised Hues or moulded ornament in low reUef, 
and that their colour was always in the glaze, neither under nor 
over it. The cups were "^vithout saucers or handles, and were 
often raised on a stem Hke a tazza. A great number of the 
pieces were sacrificial vessels, incense burners, pricket candle- 
sticks, and flower vases, objects hitherto made of bronze. 

* See Mark No. 58. 

t These might also have been copied from bronzes. 


Fig. 8.— purple and turquoise 
figure of lan tsai-ho. 


Period III. (1368-1643). 
Ming Dynasty (1368-1643). 

During the long and famous native Dynasty of" the Mings the 
manufacture of porcelain progressed and flourished greatly. In 
both skill of execution and beauty of decoration it may be said 
to have grown to full manhood, though it yet had many graces 
to acquire. Great quantities of polychrome porcelain were pro- 
duced during this Dynasty, but the manufacture of what we call 
" blue and white " so predominated that it may not be im- 
properly called the " Blue and white " period — in the same sense 
as I have called the previous Dynasties the Celadon period.^ 
There is probably no " blue and white " porcelain of an earlier 
date in existence, but Chinese writers speak of porcelain painted 
with flowers under the Yuan dynasty in the departments of 
Fu-chou and Chien-chang, and both these descriptions (called 
Liu-ch'tlan-yao and Nan-feng-yao respectively) are said to have 
been preferred to the productions of Ching-te-chen. If this be 
true, it would account for the popularity of similar decoration 
in the early years of the Ming Dynasty. In 1369 a special 
factory was estabhshed at Ching-te-chen for the use of the 
palace, where a ware of a specially fine quahty was produced 
for magistrates. In the same reign (Hung-wu, 1368-1398) the 
Emperor ordered vases to be inscribed "with the date mark of 
four or six characters, the former giving the imperial name, or 
nien-hao, and the latter the name of the Dynasty also. Similar 
orders had been given by the Emperor Ching-te (1004-1007), and 
there is a piece in the Franks collection with the date mark of 
Yuen-fung (1078-1086), but the genuineness of this is very 
doubtful, and for practical purposes date marks may be taken 
as commencing with Hung-wu (1368-1398). In this reign the 
colours were blue, black, and the purest white, and among the 

* It must at the same time be always remembered that most of the blue and 
white, and the celadon also, in modern collections, were made during the present 
Dynasty, which commenced in 164-i. 


pieces of the special ware manufactured at Ching-te-clien were : 
(1) blue flower jars painted, with two dragons sporting among 
the clouds ; (2) large blue jars, with two dragons as above, and 
flowers of the Nymphaea lotus ; (3) jars of white porcelain with 
blue flowers ; (4) large jars, ornamented with four blue dragons 
arranged in an arch, sporting in the waves of the rising tide ; 
(5) jars with blue flowers for containing fish ; (6) porcelain jars, 
of pea-green colour, etc. In the Franks collection at the British 
Museum are two pieces with the mark of Hung-wu. 

" No. 280. Yase, six-sided, of a barrel shape. Chinese 
porcelain with ornaments in low relief on a deep buff" ground, 
consisting of vases, weapons, etc., picked out in blue and dark 
broAvn under the glaze. (H, 8^ in.) " 

"No. 782. Eight-sided Dish. Chinese porcelain, painted 
in blue ; in the centre a river scene, with a man crossing a 
bridge ; round this a narrow border divided into two portions, 
one of them with a trellis diaper, the other with birds and 
prunus blossoms, placed alternately ; the border divided into 
eight compartments, four of them with quatrefoil panels on a 
pale blue ground, enclosing plants, etc., the other four with 
different patterns, one of them being a landscape with two figures 
gazing upwards; at the back, plants. (Diam. 13| in.)" 

The most celebrated (amongst Chinese connoisseurs) of the 
earlier Ming periods was that of Yung-lo (1403-1424). The 
blue and white porcelain produced in this period was regarded 
as third in rank, being excelled only by those of Hsuan-te 
(1426-1435) and Ch'eng-hua (1465-1487). The blue employed 
is stated in the annals of Fouliang to have been brought 
from some Mohammedan country (probably Persia) as tribute, 
and Avas known as Mohammedan blue, to distinguish it from 
the inferior native blue. It was called Su-ma-h or Su-ma-ni 
blue in the periods Yung-lo and Hsiian-te, and also Su-ni-po 
in that of Ch'eng-hua. Further supplies were obtained 
during the periods Ch'eng-te (1506-1521) and Chia-ching 


Quadrangular Vase, Hvo Jars ivith covers, and two Beakers, oi 
Ming porcelain, decorated in "five colours." Tlie vase 
exhibits scholars walking in gardens, with panels of fruit 
and flowers and fret borders ; dragons and phoenixes alter- 
nating on the neck. The jars have a familiar scene with 
ladies and children ; a game of go-bang with a soldier 
carr3'iQg a flag hunying up to report an imminent defeat, 
the players absorbed in the game being deaf to the news — 
a well-known story in China. The beakers are ornamented 
with bo3's in mock procession, and with birds and flowers, 
over encircling bands of sprays of flowers and fruit. The 
blue is painted on the raw body under the glaze, while the 
other colours, green, yellow, red, and black, are enamels | 

painted on over the glaze, and fixed by being re-fired in | 

the muSle stove. The vase is marked — Ta Ming Ch'eng j 

hua nien chih, but it probabl}", like the others, is really to | 

be referred to the reign of Wan-h (1573-1619). (H. ] 3 to ; 

16 in.) {Biisliell Collection.) - i 






There are two pieces in the Franks collection which bear 
the Yung-lo mark. They are blue and white inside, but outside 
of a brilliant red, a colour for which the period was also noted. 

"No, 842. Pair of Bowls. Chinese porcelain; inside 
painted in blue ; two children, one of them riding a hobby- 
horse ; outside a brilliant red, with scrolls and flowers of an 
archaic style in gold. (Diam. 4| in.) " 

The period of Yung-lo is also marked by the introduc- 
tion of very thin or eggshell porcelain. The only specimen 
of the period described in Tzti-ching's album is a small cup 
of this kind, which is called t'o-t'ai, or " bodiless." 

" Cup, Pei, of Ming Dynasty Yung-lo (1403-1424) porcelain. 
Of round depressed form, sUghtly swelUng below, these cups 
can be used either for wine or tea ; they are as thin as 
paper, called t'o-t'ai, ' bodiless.' Covered with white enamel 
over five-clawed dragons and phcenixes among clouds faintly 
engraved in the paste. Below they are marked Ta Ming- 
Yung lo nien chih, the characters also faintly engraved 
under the glaze. There are not a few of these wine cups 
left, yet they are highly appreciated by collectors of taste. 
(H. H in., d. 3 in.) 61." 

In the Hippisley collection at Washington there are six 
examples of reputed Yung-lo " egg-shell," five of which are wine 
cups. (H. If in., diam. 3f in.) They are pure white with 
delicate ornamentation of flowers and leaves round the sides, 
faintly engraved in the paste under the glaze. The other is a 
bowl (h. 2f in., diam. 8 in.) with dragons engraved in the same 
way. The decoration of these cups appears more plainly when 
they are filled with liquid. This kind of decoration was 
copied from the Shu-fu of the Yuan Dynasty and the Ting- 
chou of the Sung {see description of a piece of Shu-fu, p. 24). 

The period of Hsiian-te (1426-1435) was the most celebrated 
of all the Ming periods for " blue and white " on account of the 
fine Mohammedan blue. Genuine examples are almost un- 
known, or at least unidentified in England, though nearly all 


collections have pieces which bear the mark of the period. 
In the exhibition of " blue and white " held by the Burlington 
Fine Arts Club in 1895, there was a bowl (No. 32) lent by Mr. 
Louis Huth which bore a possibly genuine mark of Hstian-te. 
It was painted with a soft pale blue of unusual greyish tint, and 
was distinguished also by the freedom and freshness of the 
decoration. It is thus described in the catalogue : — 

" Deep Basin, with chrysanthemums and various other flowers, 
lizards, insects, and bamboo, very delicately drawn in pale blue."^ 
In the often-quoted album of Tzu-ching five pieces of Hstian- 
te blue and white are described and depicted. It may be noted 
from the following descriptions that the glaze of this period was 
sometimes marked with faint millet-like elevations, and that the 
blue is described as " brilhant," " dazzling," and " deep." 

" Miniature Vase. P'ing, of Ming Dynasty Hstian-te (1426- 
1435) porcelain. In the form of a three-jointed segment of 
bamboo, the margins painted in blue, the first-class Mohammedan 
blue of the period, of brilliant colour. A ring of nails above and 
below, the upper one interrupted by the inscription Ta Ming 
Hstian-te nien chih, in characters fine as mosquito claws. 
It is truly a rare specimen, and has been on m}^ shelf since 
I was a child, more than fifty years, so that it is growing old 
with me. 31." 

"Jar, in the form of a goose, Hu, of Hstian-te porcelain 
of the Ming Dynasty. Painted in blue of brilliant colour, the 
glaze with faint millet-like elevations, a fine example of the 
period. Holds 1| sheng [equal to about \\ pints] of wine, 
(L. 6 in.) '^ 37." 

" Tea-cup. Ch'a Pei of Ming Dynasty Hstian-te (1426-1435) 
porcelain. Of rounded form, swelling beloAv, modelled probably 
from a jade wine-cup of the Han Dynasty. Painted in blue 
with a fir tree, the gnarled trunk like a coiled dragon, with life- 
like orchids and fungus springing from the gi'ass beneath, from 

* See also p. 81. Tlie characteristics of Hsiian-te blue appear to have been 
pale, but in that and other periods no doubt there was a deep as well as a pale blue. 



the pencil evidently of a celebrated landscape painter. The 
glaze is transparent and white as mutton fat, the blue brilliant 
and dazzling, from Mohammedan blue enamel of the first 
quality. I bought four of these tea-cups for ten taels from a 
collector at Wu-hsing. (Diam. 2| in.) 48." 

"Sacrificial Vessel. Yi, of Ming Dynasty Hsiian-te porce- 
lain. Of bronze design, the oval body with broad lip projecting 
at one end supported by four straight cylindrical feet ; the 
prominent cover with horned dragon's head moulded in relief 
passing over the lip. Of snow-white ground painted in deep 
blue of the highest class Mohammedan, Hui hu, enamel, the 
blue and white alike rising in faint millet-like elevations. 
Decorated with geometrical and spiral scroll bands. A large, 
fine example of the reign, which I got from a collector of 
Wu-men, in exchange for six vols, of manuscript verse by a 
poet of the Yuan Dynasty. (H. 5 in.) 68." 

Celebrated as was the " blue " of Hslian-te, the " red " was 
prized still more highly. So brilhant was it that Tzu-ching 
states, no doubt erroneously, that it was derived from powdered 
rubies. It was sometimes used to colour the glaze, sometimes 
for painted decoration under the colourless glaze. Specially 
celebrated were the cups with red fish or peaches on a white 
ground, or with red dragons in high relief coiled round the top. 
It is variously described in the following descriptions as " the 
colour of fresh blood," " brilliant red colour dazzling to the 
eyes," and " vermilion," and, according to Dr. Bushell, was a 
copper silicate. The prices paid for fine specimens of it in 
Tzu-ching's time were very large, as will be seen from the 
follo^ving descriptions : — 

" Water Dropper for Ink Pallet, Shui Chu, of Ming 
Hsiian-te (1426-1435) porcelam, from an old bronze design, 
moulded in the form of two persimmons hanging on a leafy 
branch, the stem of which is hollowed for pouring water. The 
fruit is enamelled red, the colour of fresh blood, with faintly 
raised millet marks ; the leaves are green ; the sepals and 


stalk are glazed brown. I obtained this with the two ink pallets 
just figured from the collection of Hsii, a high official of Wu- 
men. (H. 2h in., d. 3| in.) 10." 

" Wine Pot, Hu, of Ming Dynasty Hsiian-te (1426-1435) 
porcelain, covered with deep red, chi hung, glaze. Of elegant 
form, copied from a carved jade wine pot used by the Emperor. 
The body, slender below, swelling towards the top, is decorated 
with engraved cloud-scrolls and bands of geometrical and spiral 
pattern, with conical cover, spirally curved handle, and spout 
moulded and engraved in the form of a phcenix head. In the 
reign of Hsiian-te the deep red was the colour most esteemed, 
and red precious stones from the west were powdered among 
the materials of the glaze, so that after baking in the kiln the 
brilliant red colour shone out of the glaze, dazzhng the eyes. 
No other porcelain rivals this. The piece figured is from the 
collection of Huang, General of the Guards in Peking, who told 
me that he had bought it for 200 ingots of silver in paper notes^ 
[nominally about £600, Bushell] from one of the chief eunuchs 
of the palace. (H. 6| in.) 40." 

" Rouge Pot, Lu Hu, of Ming dynasty Hsiian-te porcelain. 
Moulded in the shape and size of a persimmon fruit [Diospjros 
schitze]. Of deep red colour, with a small spout of the same 
tint ; the handle of a small branch coloured brown, the green 
leaves executed in relief on the red ground of the fruit, the 
cover being the calyx of four segments surmounted by the stalk. 
The red of rich colour, like fresh blood, the brown and green 
true to life. This piece also came from the palace, where it had 
been used by one of the imperial princesses to hold vermilion 
for painting the lips and face. It was priced very high (over a 
hundred taels) by a curio-seller at the Pao kuo ssii, at whose 
stall I saw it when at the capital (H. 2^ in., d. 4 in.) 43." 

" Tazza-shaped Cup, Pa Pei, of Ming Dj'nasty Hsiian-te 
porcelain. Form copied from jade cups of the Han Dynasty. 

* The government paper currency was extremely depreciated at this period, so 
that the actual value of the notes must have been much less. — S. W. B. 










Decorated with three red fish on a white ground pure as 
driven snow, the fish boldly outlined and red as fresh blood, 
of a brilliant red colour dazzling the eyes : truly a precious 
specimen of this rare kind of porcelain. The foot is level 
beneath, with a mark of six characters faintly engraved under 
the glaze, Ta Ming Hsiian-te nien chih. I bought it for twenty- 
four taels of a collector at Shao hsing. (H. 3 in., d. 3 in.) 54." 

" Tazza-shaped Cup, Pa Pel, of Ming Dynasty Hsiian-te 
porcelain. Of the same shape and size as No. 54, decorated with 
three pairs of peaches in red on a white ground. These cups 
are very rare, only two or three being known to exist within the 
four seas. 56." 

" Conical Wine Cup, Tou li Pel, of Ming Dynasty Hsiian-te 
porcelain. Of white ground decorated inside and out with 
cloud-scrolls engraved in the paste, a scroll border above 
coloured crimson ; the handle a dragon of bold design moulded 
in high rehef, coiled round the cup, with teeth and fore-claws 
fixed in the rim, enamelled vermilion red. Onty one or two 
of these beautiful little cups remain throughout the empire, 
and a hundred taels is not considered too much to pay for 
a specimen. I figure this one from the collection of the 
Lieutenant-Governor of Nanking. 58." 

" Palace Rice Bowl, Kung Wan, of Ming Dynasty Hsiian- 
te (1426-1435) porcelain. Of gracefully modelled shape, with 
small foot, decorated with three fish of brilliant vermilion 
colour on a ground white as snow, the glaze rising in millet- 
like granules. This is figured from the collection of Liang, 
one of the chief eunuchs at Peking, who obtained it from 
the imperial palace. (H. 2| in., diam. 7 in.) 69." 

In this reign is said to have been introduced a new method 
of decoration by perforation, or cutting out of a pattern through 
the body of the piece, and then dipping it in the glaze and 
baking it, the result being that the perforations are filled up 
with a film of glaze, and the pattern is shown in transparency. 
This has been imitated in Persia, at Worcester, and elsewhere. 


During the reign of Cheng-hua (1465-87) the supply of 
" Mohammedan " bkie failed, and polychrome decoration was 
preferred. This decoration was partly under the glaze (blue 
and sometimes red) and partly with coloured glazes, red, 
green, yellow, and purple bro^vn, but there was Httle or no 
painting over the glaze before the latter part of the period 
Wan-li.^ So that when the word enamel is used in description 
of ware previous to that period it almost always means 
coloured glaze applied to the unglazed body of the piece. 
I feel that I ought to apologise to Dr. Bushell for such 
frequent quotations from his translation of Tzu-ching's album, 
but the following are too valuable to omit : — 

" Wine Pot, Hu, of Ming Dynasty Ch'eng-hua (1465-1487) 
porcelain. Of elegant form and original design, moulded in 
the shape of a melon and painted in enamel colours. The 
brown stalk is the handle of the round cover ; irregular taper- 
ing stalks of the same colour make the spout and handles 
of the wine pot, round which \vind green tendrils and slender 
branches, the leaves standing out in relief, with two miniature 
gourds, their green shades contrasting with its pale yellow 
ground. During the reign of this emperor porcelain painted 
in colours was most highly valued; the designs were drawn 
in the palace by celebrated artists, and the different colours 
laid on and shaded with perfect skill. This specimen in its 
every detail is a wonderful copy of nature. Holds about 
IJ pints of wine. (H. 5 in., d. 3 in.) 38." 

"Wine Cup, Chiu Pei, of Ming Dynasty Ch'eng-hua (1465- 
1487) porcelain. Moulded in the form of a magnolia yulan 
flower, enamelled crimson outside, white within, resting on a 

* This is the opinion of Dr. Bushell, but Mr. Hippisley has four egg-shell 
plates decorated with landscapes in enamel colours above the glaze which he 
ascribes to Ch'eng-hua (Nos. 296 to 299), and Mr. Richard Mills showed a 
large vase and cover at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1896 (No. 4), which 
had the mark of Chia Ching, which was decorated with red and yellow fish 
over the glaze {see p. 77). 

Fig. 11.— jar of ming pepjod, painted 
with polychrome enamels. 


brown branched stem with a few small green leaves. (H. 2 in., 
d. ^ in.) 49." 

" Tazza-shaped Cup, Pa Pei, of Ming Dynasty Ch'eng hua 
(1465-1487) porcelain. Of delicate form and make, with 
slightly everted lip. Painted in enamel colours on a pure 
white ground ; a vine with leaves and tendrils of bright 
green and grapes of deep amethyst colour, drawn with the 
utmost delicacy, the colours raised in faint millet-like grains, 
all in perfect taste and antique colouring. Such a rare 
specimen of the choice production of this reign that one 
does not regret the high price. Below, finely ^vritten in 
crimson, the inscription, Ta Ming Ch'eng-hua nien chih. 
This wine cup is figured from the collection of the grand 
historiographer Wang Sun-chi of Chin sha, who is said to 
have bought it for 60 taels of the sub-prefect of Hstian ch'eng, 
(H. ^ in., d. 2| in.) 65." 

" Two Miniature Wine Cups, Hsiao Pei, of Ming Dynasty 
Ch'eng-hua porcelain, painted in enamel colours, with flowers 
and insects. Of rounded form, swelling below, so thin and 
delicate that each one weighs less than a third of an ounce. The 
cockscomb, narcissus, and other flowers, the flying dragon-fly 
and crawling mantis are minutely painted after life, in green, 
yellow, and crimson enamel. These are choice specimens of the 
wine cups of this celebrated reign, and are valued at 100 taels 
the pair, yet now even for this money it is impossible to get 
them. I saw these at Peking in the collection of General 
Huang. (H. 1| in., diam. 2 in.) 59." 

"Lotus Flower Lamp, Lien hua Teng, of Ming Dj-Tiasty 
Ch'eng-hua (1465-1487) porcelain. In the shape of a lotus 
plant painted in enamel colours, a broad green leaf being the 
stand, from the centre of which springs the flower, the seed- 
vessel of which is hollowed out to hold the oil. A broad leaf 
upon a long curved stalk overhangs the lamp, balanced by a 
smaller leaf opposite. The red of the flower and the green 
colour of the leaves are artistically shaded. (H. 7 in.) 81. 



It would appear from these descriptions that there was a 
great progress in naturalistic decoration during these reigns, 
that flowers and insects were the object of fresh studies, and 
that the best painters were employed to make designs, if not to 
paint upon the china itself. 

During the reign of Hung-chih (1488-1505), says Tzu-ching, 
hght yellow was the colour most highly valued, but enamelling 
m other colours was also employed. There were several shades 
of yellow. That of a freshly husked or boiled chestnut seems to 
have been the favourite. Others of the colour of the hibiscus 
flower and of orange are also mentioned. Yellow glazes were 
continued in the subsequent reign of Cheng-te (1506-1521). 
The only two pieces of this period which are figured by 
Tzu-ching are covered with a glaze of the freshly husked 
chestnut colour. But in this reign the Governor of Yunnan 
succeeded in obtaining supphes of the Mohammedan blue, 
and " blue and white " came into fashion again. So fine was 
this blue that imitation sapphires were made of it. In the 
Franks collection is an ink apparatus of this period with 
Arabic inscriptions painted in blue (No. 147a). Two brilliant 
kinds of red were also prized, and over-glaze decoration is 
mentioned. In the next reign, Chia-ching (1522-1566), a great 
deal of " blue and white " was made. The blue was preferred 
to be very dark in colour, differing from the pale Hstian- 
te blue, and the best was a mixture of the foreign and native 
cobalt, as the former was apt to " run " in baking. There is no 
specimen of Chia-ching in Tzii-ching's album, probably because 
it was too modern then, but it is much prized now. The 
Mohammedan blue, however, failed again in the later years of 
this reign, and finally disappears from Chinese ceramic history. 
In the Exhibition of Blue and White Oriental Porcelam at 
the Burhngton Fine Arts Club were two large pieces of blue 
and white with the mark of this reign. 

"4. A Broad Circular Vase and Cover. Decorated 
with various water-plants in blue, and yellow fish over the 


Massive Jiir of early Ming porcelain with an outer pierced 
casing, decorated in turquoise blue and manganese purple 
(sur biscuit) with touches of yellow. Some of the parts 
being left unglazed the coarse porcelain shows up biscuit- 
coloured. On the body is a landscape with mounted 
military figures of antique design cai-rying a banner, a 
spear, and a crossbow : others are in civilian costume, one 
carrying a lyre. Above is a band of pseonies, and below a 
border of conventional fret. Carved wood cover and stand. 
(H. 12i in., diam. 13f in.) (Vicforia and Albert Masewm, 
25, '83.") 




Fig. 12.— peach -shape >vixe-pot: 
turquoise and aubergine. 

Fig. 13.— squirrel and grapes : -s^.v- 



glaze on the vase and red tish in the same way on the 
cover." Lent by Mr. R Mills* 

"22. Double Gourd-shaped Bottle. Circular panels in 
deep blue, representing cranes, fong-hoa, and five-clawed dragons, 
the intervals filled with formal floral decorations." 

Lent by Mr. Veil. C. Prinsep, R.A.^ 

The colour of this piece is of a very strong, dark, rich blue, 
generally characteristic of the period, and there seems no reason 
to doubt the date-mark. 

There are several pieces with this mark in the Franks 
collection, some covered with a yellow glaze, Nos. 40, 41, 42 
maroon, Nos. 1466, 1467 ; blue and white, No. 1475. 

Dr. Bushell records that the reign was remarkable for pieces 
with a mottled blue ground lined with canary and coral decora- 
tion, and for blue paintings relieved by red, blue, and yellow. 
He also notes that very large pieces were then made, some 
round dishes being over three feet in diameter ; that a turquoise 
blue from copper was used; that a coral red glaze produced 
by roasting crystals of iron sulphate was substituted for the old 
copper red, and that the designs were principally derived from 
embroidery and coloured silks. 

Although the Chia-ching white is generally yellowish, this 
reign was noted for a ware like white jade, intended for use on 
the palace altars. A potter named Ts'ui, celebrated for his 
imitations of Hstian-te and Ch'eng-hua porcelain, lived during 
this and the next reign — that of Lung-ch'ing (1567-1572). 

In this reign were also produced examples of what is 
probably a much older kind of decoration, by coloured glazes on 
"biscuit" — i.e. ware baked but not glazed. The pieces were 
" washed " rather than painted with coloured glazes, often of 
very rich tones, red, blue, aubergine, yellow, and turquoise. 
When the decoration was in relief, or, in the case of a statuette, 
the differences in level would suffice to keep the different colours 
distinct. Thus, a slightly relieved dragon could be made red, 

* See also p. 77. f See also p. 79. 


and a parrot in the round could be given a green body and 
maroon wings, ai^id be made to stand on a yellow rock, and 
figures could be draped in coloured mantles. In other cases the 
surface of a vase is often covered with a pattern outlined in 
relief, making compartments to keep the different colours in 
their places. The pieces, especially the turquoise pieces, are 
often curiously carved or perforated. There are three splendid 
jars of this class in the South Kensington Museum {see Class 
I., Section C). 

During the reigns of Lung-ch'ing (1567-1572) and Wan-li 

(1573-1619) the Government was much harassed by the Manchu 

Tatars, who eventually conquered the country and established 

the present or Ch'ing Dynast3^ The porcelain produced during 

these two reigns is very much alike. The disorder in the 

empire and the enormous supplies of porcelain ordered for the 

use of the palace contributed to the deterioration of the wares 

produced at the imperial factories, and the supplies of good blue 

and of good clay also failed. The production, however, was 

enormous, and it is to these reigns, especially to that of Wan-li, 

that nearly all the genuine pieces of Ming porcelain which have 

reached this country belong. Yet some of the blue is fine in 

colour, as in some pieces which were lent by Mr. William Agnew 

to the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1895. One of them has the 

Wan-li mark. These came from Burghley House, and are 

believed to have been in the possession of the Cecil family since 

the time of Queen Elizabeth. If this be so, they cannot be later 

than Wan-li. There was also much advance made in painting 

in colours over the glaze. The pieces so decorated are divided 

into " three-colour " and " five-colour " pieces, and very few of the 

latter were sent to Europe till within recent years. The "three" 

colours are yellow, green, and purple. The yellow is usually 

dull, of a buff or " nankeen " colour, and the purple from a 

bro-vvnish or mouse to prune colour. To the " five-colour " 

pieces a red over the glaze and blue underneath it were added 

to the " three " colours. They are, in fact, " blue and white," 


with other colours added over the glaze. The portions of 
the design that were meant to remain blue were first painted, 
and the pieces were then glazed and baked. Then the rest of 
the decoration in other colours was added over the glaze 
in enamel colours, and the piece was baked again at a 
lower temperature. Some specimens with no decoration but 
the underpainting in blue, with the faces and other parts 
" left " for subsequent painting over the glaze, are in the 
Franks collection in the British Museum. Over-oflaze decora- 
tion is mentioned, as I have said, as early as the reign of 
Hung-chih (1488-1505), and Dr. Bushell states that in the reign 
of Cheng-te (1506-1521), blue and red under-glaze were com- 
bined with over-glaze decoration. It is probable, however, 
that this kind of decoration was imperfectly developed till 
Wan-li's time, when the beautiful class of Chinese porcelain, 
happily named famille verte by M. Jacquemart, may be said 
to have commenced. It is not so perfect in execution, and it is 
rougher in design than the exquisite famille verte of the period 
of K'ang-hsi (1662-1722), but it is essentially the same in artistic 
intention. It has" one difference, however, that all collectors 
should note : the blue is always under the glaze, whereas in the 
K'ang-hsi period a blue vitreous enamel was used over the glaze. 
In Wan-li's time the inequality of glaze-surface, sometimes 
compared to orange-peel, was much prized. This unequal 
surface is produced in the kiln, like the " millet grain " surface 
of earlier wares, which is noted in some of the descriptions in 
Tzii-ching's album. 

The remaining reigns of the Ming emperors count for little 
in the history of ceramics. They were constantly at war with 
the Manchu Tatars, and the factories at Ching-t^-chen fell into 
decay and were finally closed. The marks of T'ien-chi (1621- 
1627) and Ch'ung-chen (1628-1643) are found on a few pieces of 
porcelain. There is a specimen of each in the Franks collection 
(Nos. 732 and 804) and, as the catalogue admits (p. 222), " they 
do not say much for the ceramic skill of the period." 


Period IV. 
The Great Ch'ing (the present) Dynasty (1644-1901). 

Under the present Dynasty, which has lasted over two 
centuries and a half, the ceramic art of China has culminated 
and declined. Under the reign of K'ang-hsi (1662-1722) it 
reached its zenith in the beauty of colour and. artistic feeling, 
and in that of Ch'ien-lung (1736-1795), though with some loss 
of the finest qualities, to perhaps a still greater perfection of 
technical execution. After that reign it gradually decreased in 
merit till the factories of Ching-te-chen were destroyed in the 
T'aip'ing rebellion. Since then, at least till quite recently, no 
Chinese porcelain has been produced which is worthy the 
attention of the collector, and the latest " revival " has been 
rather commercial than artistic, having produced little except 
colourable imitations of those old wares which realise high 
prices in Europe, such as so-called " hawthorn " jars and pieces 
of sang-de-boiuf, or "peachblow." Some of the latest are 
described as very good, and capable of deceiving experts. 

As has already been said, most of the finest pieces in 
European collections belong to this Dynasty, especially to the 
two long reigns of K'ang-hsi (1662-1722) and Ch'ien-lung 
(1736-1795), and the intermediate period of Yung-cheng (1723- 
1735). They comprise nearlj^ every kind of porcelain ever 
produced in China, including large quantities of blue and white, 
and are marked with the date-marks of all the most celebrated 
reigns, especially those of Hsuan-te (1426-1435) and Ch'eng-hua 
(1465-1487), but in addition to the imitation of all kinds of old 
ware great progress was made in manufacture, which reached its 
highest perfection, and in the decoration of porcelain in over- 
glaze vitreous enamels, fired in small kilns (muffle kilns) of 
lower temperature. To this Dynasty belong the perfection of 
the famille verte and the introduction and development of the 
famille rose, with its beautiful series of reds from carmine 


Wine Jug with a melon-shaped body of octagonal form deco- 
rated in panels, divided by upright ribs, with figures of 
boys, one in each panel, with a faint suggestion of a land- 
scape above, and alternate sprigs of flowers and s3Tnbols 
below. The neck is decorated with flowers, and the up- 
right spout, which is connected with the body by a scroll 
of porcelain, is roughly pencilled with scrolls and symbols. 
The three boys on one side are seated, conjuring and 
playing music ; the three on the other passing in pro- 
cession with music and umbrella. The silver-gilt mount- 
ing is English, with hall marks of the year 1585, of the 
best character of Elizabethan work of that period, boldly 
embossed with fruit and flowers. (H. 10 in.) (Victoria 
and Albert Museum, 7915, '62.) 



to pale rosG pink produced from gold, and also those marvels of 
refined and elaborate workmanship, the extremely thin plates, 
saucers, etc., of "egg-shell" china, decorated with delicately 
drawn figures and landscapes surrounded with many " borders " 
of different intricate patterns borrowed from woven and brocaded 
silks. All these are decorated with over-glaze enamels in the 
•same way as enamels on metal, and so the period may properly 
be called the " enamel " period, as those preceding it have been 
named the " celadon " and the "blue and white" periods, although 
it produced great quantities of celadon and other coloured glazes, 
and blue and white also. 

During the first reign of this Dynasty, that of Shun-chih 
(1644-1661), the factories at Ching-te-chen were re-opened, but 
the disturbed state of the country naturally gave the Govern- 
ment plenty to do without paying great attention to improve- 
ments in the ceramic art. 

The porcelain of the Shun-chih period was of much the same 
character as that of the Wan-li. But the Tatar conquerors, who 
were scholars as well as warriors, adopted the civilisation and 
the culture of the conquered, and the next emperor (K'ang-hsi) 
not only revived the manufacture of porcelain, but raised it to 
such a pitch of artistic excellence as was never reached before, 
and has never been reached since. 

During his long reign of sixty years great advances were ot 
course made, and the finest pieces belong probably to the latter 
half of the reign, but it started well, for the imperial factories 
at Ching-te-chen were under the supervision of Lang-ting-so, 
the Viceroy of Kiang-si, a name great in Chinese ceramic 
history, as the inventor of the coloured glaze called sang-de- 
hoeuf. In composition it did not differ from that of other reds 
derived from copper, but it was so brilliant and hvely as to 
excel them all. There is only one piece of it, and not a ver}'- 
good one, in the Franks collection (No. 44). The term sang- 
de-boeuf has been (and often is) applied to other reds and 
crimsons, which are streaked with blue in parts, but the sang- 


de-hoeuf par excellence shows no blue, it shoals from ruby 
into flame colour and deepens into a brownish red.* 

Under Lang-ting-so was also produced a fine crackled apple- 
green, and both the red and the green are called by the Chinese 
Lang-yao, or " Lang porcelain," after the inventor, who retained 
his office till 1688. Both Franks (p. 8) and Grandidier (p. 160) 
speak of a family of famous potters called Lang, but this, 
according to Dr. Bushell, is an error. In Chinese ceramics, 
as in English literature, there is only one Lang. In 1675 the 
imperial factory was burnt during the rebellion of Wu San- 
kuei, but it was soon rebuilt, and in 1680 such a large order 
was received from the Palace that it was deemed necessary to 
appoint a Commission to see that it was properly carried out. 
A second Commission was appointed in 1682, and in the year 
afterwards Ts'ang-ying-hsiian was appointed superintendent of 
the imperial factory. To him is credited the chief honour of 
the splendid renaissance of ceramic art in China in the reign of 
K'ang-hsi. " Ts'ang-yao," as the porcelain produced under his 
superintendence is called, is rich, thin, and translucent, and the 
glaze colours in which he specially excelled were an iridescent 
green called " snakeskin," a brownish yellow called " eelskin," 
besides a turquoise blue and a variegated yellow; but he also 
produced fine monochromes of other greens and yellows, and 
purple and red and blue, the last two being souffle, or blown 
on to the pieces through gauze. This souffle blue is the 
famous colour called "powder," or "mazarin," blue, and by 
the French fouette. " Peach bloom," the colour which now 
fetches such extravagant prices, especially in America, is also 
said to have been first produced in the reign of Kang-hsi.t 
Many, if not most, of the pieces of this colour which have left 
China formerly belonged to the hereditary princes of Yi, who are 

* See also p. 56. 

t But this is doubtful, as some -vdne cups of Hsiian-te are said to have been of 
this colour {see " Catalogue of Walters Collection," p. 1-64). It is supposed to 
have been produced by an accident of the kiln on pieces intended to be red. It 
is a copper colour, and such an accident may have occurred at any time. 

Fig. 14.— TPaPLE gourd vase, painted 




descended from this emperor, and whose collections have been 
broken up within recent years. Another glaze-colour, called 
" metallic," or " mirror " black, was also produced for the first 
time in this reign. It is much more lustrous than previous 
blacks, and is produced by mixing cobaltiferous manganese with 
the ferruginous clay used for the brown known as fond laqi^e. 
This brown colour, which is very familiar from its employment 
on pieces decorated with blue and white, varies greatly, and has 
shades which are called " bronze," " old gold," " chocolate," 
" dead leaf," " cafe-au-lait," " chamois," and others. It is some- 
times decorated with white slip, and sometimes by cutting a 
pattern through the brown glaze on to the white paste — an 
effect which has been imitated in Persia, Holland, and else- 
where. As has been said, all, or nearly all, the celebrated 
ancient wares were imitated during this reign, including the 
" turquoise," " peacock," or " kingfisher " blue (used often in 
contrast to the rich " aubergine," or " ripe grape," purple), 
and the soft white known as Fen-ting, after the Sung ware 
of the same name. There were two sorts of Fen-ting, one 
reticulated with brown lines and sometimes mottled with Ught 
buff clouds, and the other more delicate, like eggshell,''^ and 
approaching the ivory-white of Fuchien, the hlanc de Chine 
(see p. 51) When this Fen-ting is used with blue it becomes 
what is known as " soft paste " Chinese porcelain, now so gTcatly 
prized in America. It is generally crackled. The ordinary 
blue and white made in the K'ang-hsi period is of unequalled 
purity in paste and in colour. The white is whiter than 
that of the Ming period and less chalky than that ot 
the following reigns. The blue is of every shade and of the 
finest quality, varying from the very deepest sapphire to the 
palest clair-de-lune and pearly grey. The best artists were 
employed for the designs of decoration, which was of every 

* A specimen of eggshell Fen-ting of this period is seen in the foreground of 
Fig. 18, a wine cup artistically moulded in the form of a lotus leaf, with a blossom 
and seed-vessel projecting from the rim. — S. W. B. 


kind. This will be treated more fully in the chapter devoted 
to blue and Avhite. Here it will be enough to say that 
though more delicate and refined than that of the Ming period, 
K'ang-hsi " blue and white " had a vigour which subsequently 
declined. It should also be noted here that the blue was 
not " Mohammedan " but native, and that the greatest care 
and skill were employed in the purification of the cobalt from 
manganese and other constituents of the ore in which it was 

The great progress in the reign was, however, in polychrome 
decoration. Large quantities were produced of the " three- 
colour" pieces (green, purple, and yellow), which was imitated 
so cleverly in pottery by the Japanese at Kutani, while the " five- 
colour " pieces differed from the Ming " five colour " in the use 
of a blue (cobalt) vitreous enamel over the glaze. The greater 
perfection to which over-glaze painting in enamels was brought 
was shown especially in the classes called famille verte, and 
for once it seems that the ceramic art of China gained 
something from a Japanese initiative. The beautiful, but 
short-lived, class of Japanese porcelain known to the French 
as the premiere qiialite coloriee, with its charming chord 
of blue, apple-green and red, was made at Hizen in the seven- 
teenth century, before the Chinese knew how to paint so 
delicately in those clear, crisp, vitreous enamels of the muffie 
kiln which they afterwards brought to such perfection. This 
Japanese porcelain was imitated in China in the second half 
of K'ang-hsi's reign. 

To this reign belong the first descriptions, by a European, 
of the factories of Ching-te-chen, and of the processes employed 
in making porcelain. They were written by a Jesuit missionary, 
Pere d'Entrecolles, in 1712 and 1722, and were published in 
" Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses." From these we gain some 
idea of the importance of the industry, for there were then 
over a million persons employed at Ching-te-chen, and over 
three hundred kilns in full activity, the fires of which at 


Small Sang-de-h(£itf Vase. The rich crimson glaze, as described 
on p. 56, " shoals into a flame colour at the neck of the 
vase and through a ruby-red to a brownish red (like red 
sherry) at the base." Its crackled texture is most plainly 
seen at the top, where the copper-red has been burnt out 
by the oxidising power of the fire, leaving behind only a 
faint greenish tinge. (H. G| in.) {Victoria and Albert 
Museum, 6949, '60.) 


night so illuminated the hills surrounding the plain in Avhich 
the town stood that it seemed as some vast city abandoned 
to the flames. 

"And bird-like poise on balanced wing 
Above the town of King-te-ching, 
A burning town or seeming so, — 
Three thousand furnaces that glow 
Incessantly, and fill the air 
With smoke uprising, gyre on gyre, 
And painted by the lurid glare 
Of jets and flashes of red fire." 

Longfellow : " Keramos." 

The period of Yung-cheng (1723-1735) is transitional in 
style, carrying on the traditions of K'ang-hsi, and aiming at 
a still more delicate and perfect execution. Dr. Bushell 
describes the period as one in which the strong colours and 
vigorous decoration of K'ang-hsi are gradually toned down 
until they merge into the half-tints and broken colours which 
mark the more regular and carefully finished designs of Ch'ien- 
lung. Nien-hsi-yao was in 1727 entrusted with the direction 
of the imperial factories, and was soon associated with T'ang- 
ying, who succeeded him in the directorship about fifteen 
3'ears afterwards. During this reign the colours were brilliant, 
the forms pure, and the workmanship delicate. The Nien-yao, 
as the porcelain produced by Nien-hsi-yao is called, was 
(according to Mr. Hippisley) " chiefly monochrome in colour- 
blue, bright and carmine reds, celadons, and of egg colour, 
as bright as silver," but decoration with Avhite flowers and 
gold designs on a black ground is also characteristic of this 
period. In flambe or splashed vases ( Yao-pien) great advance 
was made. Contrivance was employed to produce effects 
which had at first been due to the caprices of the kiln. By 
the application of different glazes to the same piece, by 
blowing or spraying as well as dipping, by painting under 
the glaze, and by other devices, the variegation by streaks 
and spots was produced with something like certainty, and 


new effects and combinations of colour were introduced. The 
great control they acquired over such effects is nowhere shown 
more clearly than in the combination of colour called " tiger 
skin." This is found in patches of more or less regularity, 
dabbed with spots of yellow, green, purple, and white. It was 
Bot, however, invented under Yung-cheng but under K'ang-hsi. 

The imitation of old wares was greatly practised as usual, 
a great number of genuine pieces of the Sung and Ming 
Dynasties being sent from the palace to Ching-te-chen for 
the purpose. It was in this reign that European influence 
began to affect the decoration of Chinese porcelain. This 
was greatly due to the influence of the Jesuits and to the 
trade with Europe, especially Holland. 

The Chinese ceramists imitated Limoges enamels and 
European engravings. The manufacture of dinner and tea 
services of special shapes to suit the European market, often 
decorated with "armorial bearings," was largely developed. 
Even on the highest class porcelain made for Chinese con- 
sumption a class of painting was introduced which was called 
foreign by the Chinese themselves. This represents more 
or less the famille rose, decorated with pink and crimson 
derived from gold, bright yellow, pale green, and a general 
preponderance of soft tints. Grounds of a lemon yellow 
and a reddish violet appear to have been introduced in 
Yung-cheng's time, and to have been used in the so-called 
"foreign" decoration. The colours employed in this over- 
glaze decoration were the same as those employed for 
enamelling on copper, which flourished in China at the same 
time. The reign of Yung-cheng was also noted for decoration 
in pdte-sur-pdte, but perhaps the most remarkable of all the 
innovations of the reign was the production of a highly 
vitreous porcelain in imitation of a kind of opaque glass 
made by Hu or Ku-Yueh.* Hu's glass is what is known as 

* The Chinese character Su cut in two becomes Ku Yueh, hence the name of 
JTm Yueh JSsiian, literally " Ancient Moon Terrace," adopted by Hu as the name of 
his studio, and affixed as a " mark " to his productions. — S. W. B. 


. -^^'^ 

••-^ ..■ 

^ . '•« » 

s i 


-^ » 








" Chinese glass," that beautiful semi-transparent substance, 
used for those snuff-bottles and other small articles which 
are now so highly prized by collectors. The finest specimens 
are composed of layers of different colours carved cameo 
fashion. It is said that the Emperor Yung-cheng expressed 
his high admiration of their beauty, but at the same time a 
regret that it should not be possible to obtain the same 
brilliant transparency upon a ground of porcelain, and that 
Tang-ying's energies were immediately devoted towards ful- 
filling the emperor's desire. The result was the production 
of a porcelain of exceptional brilliancy, which is very rare 
and held in great esteem. Some pieces are inscribed with 
characters signifying " Modelled on the pattern of the Ku 
Yueh Hsiian." The earlier pieces are marked generally in 
red, " Ta Ch'ing nien chih," or " Made during the Great Pure 
[i.e. the Ch'ing or present] Dynasty " ; on the later, " Ch'ien- 
lung nien chih," or " Made in the reign of Ch'ien-lung," is 
engraved on the foot and filled with thick bright blue 
enamel. In the Hippisley collection are nine specimens 
(Nos. 328 to 336) of this most glass-like of all porcelains. 
In the long reign of Ch'ien-lung (1736-1795) a large quantity 
of very beautiful porcelain was produced, much of which is 
prized by collectors on account of the refined beauty of its 
decoration, its great range of colour and perfect workman- 
ship. It fails, however, in comparison with that of K'ang-hsi 
from want of vigour, from its too great formality, regularity, 
and insistence on complete symmetry. It is therefore com- 
paratively mechanical and uninteresting, notwithstanding its 
excellence in technique. The " blue and white " of this reign 
is carefully executed, but the decoration is generallj'- con- 
ventional, the blue of a dull quality and the white pure but 
inchned to chalkiness. The famous director in this reign 
was T'ang-ying, as already mentioned. Besides making the 
celebrated glass-like porcelain he restored the " Chun-chou " 
porcelain of the Sung Dynasty, produced new tints of turquoise 


and rose red glaze, and succeeded in making again the large 
dragon fish-bowls, which had not been sent up to Peking for 
the imperial gardens since the Ming period. He was also 
the author of " Twenty Illustrations of the Manufacture of 
Porcelain," which are of great value and interest. They have 
been translated by Dr. Bushell, and published in his great book. 

Elaborate and naturalistic floral decoration was also carried 
to a pitch unknown before. On a flower pot in the Walters 
collection (Fig. 280) are painted fir, bamboo, prunus, narcissus, 
roses, pomegranate, chrysanthemum, begonias, hibiscus, mar- 
guerites, yellow jasmine, amaranthus, orchids, besides other 
flowers which have no English names. Other pieces called 
" Hundred flower " vases have their surface entirely covered with 
leaf and blossom in a brilHant mosaic of enamels. This kind of 
decoration was continued with great skill under succeeding 
reigns. The reign of Ch'ien-lung is also noted for the introduc- 
tion of the deep gros-hleii, known to the Chinese as " sapphire," 
for great improvements in the iron or " coral " reds, and the 
invention of some new Jiamhe combinations, such as " robin's 
egg " and " tea dust.^' Moreover, the desire to imitate other 
substances which had from the first animated the ceramic 
artists of China culminated in this reign with their mastery 
over colours and combinations of them. Amongst other things 
they copied with wonderful closeness were gold, silver, jade, 
lacquer, mother-of-pearl, shells, rhinoceros horn, bamboo, wood, 
gourdskin, marble, puddingstone, carnelian, agate, copper, rusted 
iron, and bronze overlaid with all kinds of paiwia. They imitated 
also, at least in pattern and colour, bottles of Venetian glass. 
On the whole, the note of the Ch'ien-lung period was mastery of 
material, from the plain " self-glazed ' piece to the " hundred 
flower " enamellings, and from the simple surface to the most 
elaborate modellings, carvings, and perforations. 

Under the reign of Chia-ch'ing (1796-1820) the factories 
went on turning out a good deal of fine porcelain. Some of 
his pieces Avere covered with elaborate blue scrolls on a gold 

Fig. 16.— ch'ien-lung vase, 52 inches 
high, decorated ix famille 
rose enamels. 


background, and the monochromes were highly finished; but 
he was feeble and dissolute, and there is no new invention or 
special improvement to be assigned to this period. 

Tao-kuang (1821-1850), the second son of Chia-ch'ing, tried to 
reform the abuses and the laxities of his father's reign, but his 
difficulties were increased by the war with France and England, 
and afterwards by the T'aip'ing rebellion. He, however, managed 
to bestow some attention on the ceramic industry, and the pieces 
made for his own use, and marked with the name of his palace 
(Shen-te-t'ang), are sought by collectors. The bowls made in 
this reign, called in the trade "Peking bowls," which have a 
ground of red enamel with reserves decorated with sprays of 
flowers and fruit, would fetch ten guineas a pair at Christie's a 
few years ago. Other colours — pink, yellow, blue, and French 
grey — were also used as grounds in the decoration of these 
medallion bowls and small vases of similar character. 

The rest of the history of porcelain in China may be told in 
Mr. Hippisley's words : — 

" The productions of Tao-kuang's successor [Hsien-feng, 
1851-1861] are marked by rapid decadence, and the rebels, 
when they overran Kiangsi province, having entirely destroj-ed 
Ching-te-chen and its factories, the manufacture of porcelain 
ceased entirely. 

"During the reigns of his son T'ung-chih (1862-1874) and 
nephew Kuang-hsti the manufacture has been renewed, and 
great attention paid to its improvement, but it still falls far 
short of the classic periods of Yuug-cheng and of Ch'ien-lung. 
Some of the decorations in sepia exhibit considerable artistic 
merit, and a style of decoration consisting of flowers and 
butterflies in black and white upon a pale turquoise ground was 
highly appreciated some fifteen [this was written more than ten 
years since] years ago among foreigners. The greatest measure 
of success has, however, of late years been gained in the repro- 
duction of the famille verie decoration of the first half of 
K'ang-hsi's reign, and of this ornamentation and of plum-blossom 


on black grounds. So good>are these imitations that a practised 
eye can alone detect the false from the real, and I have known a 
pair of black-ground vases, only two or three years old, pur- 
chased by a foreign dealer for over $1,000 under the belief, no 
doubt, that thev dated from the time of R'ang-hsi or Ch'ien- 

More recently, imitations of the so-called " hawthorn " 
ginger jars, of sang-debceuf, and other kinds of highly 
prized Chinese porcelain have been imitated with such close- 
ness as to deceive all but the most expert. 


Plum Blossom Jar (Mei Hua Kuan) of globular form, with a 
bell-sliaped cover, painted in the most brilliant blue of the 
K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722), with blossoming branches 
and twigs of the floral emblem of the New Year. The 
branches of the wild prunus spread alternately upward and 
downward on the sides of the jar, so as to display the 
white blossoms and buds, reserved upon a vibrating ground 
of pellucid blue, pencilled over with a reticulation of 
darker blue lines to represent cracking ice, a symbol of 
the coming spring. The rim is ornamented by a castel- 
lated border, a plain band of white defines the edge of the 
overlapping cover. The Chinese offer presents of fragrant 
tea and preserved fruits at the New Year in jars of this 
kind, and the prunus is the floral emblem of the season. 
These beautiful jars are often called "hawthorn jars," but 
the blackthorn of our hedges is a nearer ally of the wild 
prunus of North China. (H. 10^ in.) (Victoria and 
AlheH Museum, 279, '86.) 

Part IK 


Section A. — Plain White. 

THERE are some collectors who make a specialty of white 
porcelain, and a very interesting study it is. In the first 
place, it is the foundation of all porcelain. The first ware which, 
according to European notions, could properly be called porcelain, 
that is, highly vitrified and translucid, must have been white, or 
something approaching to it. There may be, as has been seen, 
some doubt as to certain old, unbroken coloured pieces, whether 
they are true porcelain or not, but the doubt cannot occur with 
uncoloured pieces. The green ware like glass made by Ho-chou, 
and the ware like jade produced by T'ao Yti, under the Sui 
Dynasty, may or may not have been porcelain, and the same 
doubt exists with regard to many of the so-called porcelains of 
the T'ang Dynasty, but if the description of the T'ang ware 
called Shu-yao is correct, viz. snow-white in colour with a 
clear ring, there is very little doubt that it Avas true porcelain. 

Porcelain can be artificially coloured throughout its sub- 
stance (like the pieces made by Messrs. Minton for Solon's 
decoration in pdte-sur-pdte), but there is no record of any 
interference in China with the colour of the body. For practical 
purposes it may therefore be assumed that all Chinese porcelain 
is "white" of more or less purity, and it would naturally be 
the desire of the potter that all the undecorated ware should 
be as purely white as possible. 



White porcelain not meant to be decorated in colours is 
of two classes, glazed and unglazed. The unglazed, called 
biscuit, is comparatively rare, and is often carved and per- 
forated in a very elaborate manner. In the Franks collection 
is a pair of cups (No. 26a) on the outside of which are " five 
medallions with figures in biscuit in high relief, in one of them 
the god of Longevity, in each of the others two figures are 
standing, probably the Pa-sien, or eight immortals ; between the 
medallions is pierced fretwork. (H. If in., diam. 8f in.)" Dr. 
Bushell showed me a pair of little boxes of white biscuit, simply 
decorated with incised lines, meant to carry about fighting 
crickets. In the Hippisley collection (No. 349) is a pencil-holder 
of white Tao-kuang (1821-1850) biscuit decorated with a land- 
scape in high relief, " representing an old man riding a mule, 
followed by an attendant, over a two-arched stone bridge across 
a mountain torrent towards a monastery built among a grove 
of trees on a valley slope. Behind are towering hills," etc. 
Vermilion boxes for the writing table, and little plaques mounted 
as miniature screens, decorated with landscape, etc., in relief, are 
also occasionally to be met with in pure white biscuit. A 
vermilion box of this kind of the period Tao-kuang is in the 
South Kensington Museum. 

Glazed white porcelain is of two kinds : (1) Porcelain in- 
tended to be decorated with colour ; (2) porcelain not intended 
to be so decorated. Of the former much was imported in the 
eighteenth century and decorated in Europe. In England a 
great deal was decorated at Lowestoft and other places, includ- 
ing Chelsea ; but we need not dwell upon it here, for if any 
can still be found in its undecorated state, it is not worth the 
attention of the collector, being generally inferior to the porcelain 
that was intended by the Chinese to remain white. The latter 
varies in quality, but the finest specimens represent the acme 
of perfection in the production of the pure body of porcelain. 
It was probably produced at nearly all the Chinese factories, 
and differs considerably from other Chinese porcelain. Franks 



says ; " The paste is usually of a creamy white, resembUng ivory, 
the glaze seems closely blended with the paste, and has a satiny 
texture like the surface of soft-paste porcelain ; the decorations 
consist of ornaments in high relief, usually of an archaic 
character, or of engraved designs which frequently cannot be 
distinguished without holding the specimens up to the light. 
We find in this material oval or octagonal cups, which in some 
instances are made to imitate cups carved out of rhinoceros 
horn. There are also statuettes of the goddess Kwan-yin, and 
other Buddhist divinities, figures of lions, cocks, and other 
animals, as well as small seals of a quadrangular shape, to which 
attention has been much directed by the reported discovery of 
one or two of them in Irish bogs." These seals are sur- 
mounted by figures of tigers, lions, hares, and other animals. 

This description applies more especially to the class of white 
porcelain esteemed in France under the name of blanc de Chine, 
for which the district of Te-hoa in the province of Fuchien has 
been celebrated since the Ming Dynasty. For many centuries the 
" white " of Fuchien has been the only artistic Chinese porcelain 
that has been made out of Ching-te-chen. It would appear to 
be Dr. Bushell's opinion that all the statuettes of plain white 
come from Fuchien, and, indeed, most other plain white pieces 
with moulded ornaments, especially those used in religious rites, 
like incense burners, flower vases, and libation cups. Of the 
images the most beautiful are those of the goddess Kwan-yin 
(or Kuan-yin), seated on a rock with dragons at her feet, or on 
a lotus flower, her garments arranged in graceful sweeping- 
curves. She often holds a child on her arm or lap, like a 
Madonna, or a peach in her hand, and is accompanied by atten- 
dants, generally boys. One in the South Kensington Museum, 
on a rock with a child and dragons and boys, is figured in 
Mr. Gulland's book (196) and is fifteen inches in height. The 
commonest statuettes are those of grotesque lions (often called 
kylins erroneously) seated on rectangular pedestals, with conical 
tubes for joss-sticks at their sides. They show very square jaws 


with broad rows of teeth, and their manes, tails, and other hairy 
parts are elaborately curled and tied up with ribbons. One foot 
is planted on a ball of silk with which they are playing, a thick 
strand of it passing through their mouths. More rare are the 
statuettes of elephants, dragons, and kylins proper (strange 
mixtures of rhinoceros, dragon, and deer). These objects vary 
greatly in size, paste, and glaze. The finest are of a creamy tint, 
with a very sott glaze which melts into the paste so that the 
whole substance seems homogeneous, and if held up to -the light 
has a warm, soft, milky translucency, as of jade, ivory, or horn. 
It would be convenient if the term hlanc de Chine applied to 
this variety only. Others are more like ordinary hard porcelain 
with a cold bluish tint in the glaze. The libation cups are 
usually either eight-sided or oval. The former are frequently 
decorated with a moulded figure of one of the eight immortals 
on each of the sides, the smooth-sided often have verses en- 
graved upon them. The marks are engraved in the paste, and 
(what is unusual in Chinese porcelain) are often the signatures 
of the makers. The shapes are taken from those of the old 
bronze articles they superseded, or from natural objects like 
flowers, or from carvings in jade and rhinoceros horn, as in the 
case of the oval flower-like cups supported by sprays of prunus 
and other flowers. One of the most interesting pieces of blanc 
de Chine is an incense burner, said to have been brought from 
China to Venice by Marco Polo in the thirteenth century. He 
visited the province of Fuchien. The identical piece is figin-ed 
in M. Grandidier's book, but it seems to have been of a popular 
pattern, and to have been frequently imitated since, so that 
copies of it are not very uncommon. There is one in the Franks 
collection which is thus described in the catalogue : — 

" Basin^ with cover and stand ; eight-sided, with ornaments 
moulded in relief Ivorj^-white Chinese porcelain. The basin 

* Perhaps " casket " or " box " would be a more appropriate term than basin 
or howl, but it is meant to bum incense. It was probably an imitation of jade or 
ivory carving. 





^ ^ 

^ § 

O *■ 

O i-i 

23 an 



has eight feet and four handles ; each side is ornamented with 
three bands enclosing scrolls and other devices of an ancient 
bronze style ; the cover has a knob at each angle and is orna- 
mented with an iris surrounded by primus, the spaces between 
are pierced ; the central knob is wanting. The stand has a 
raised knob at each angle, and eight low feet ; in the centre is a 
large flower surrounded by small detached scrolls, all impressed ; 
on the outside are panels like those on the bowl. (H. 4| in., 
diam. of stand, 6f in.) 17." 

Another very interesting piece of ivory white is the oldest 
specimen of porcelain in the Dresden Gallery. It is a plate said 
to have been brought over by a Crusader from Palestme, and is 
inlaid with uncut rubies and emeralds set in gold filigree. 
Some pieces similarly decorated are to be found in the Sultan's 
palace at Constantinople. The Dresden plate is marked with 
the character " Fu " (happiness). 

A particular kind of fine Avhite is called Fen-ting, or white 
Ting, named after the famous Ting-yao of the Sung Dynasty, 
which is of a dull white as compared with the best Fuchien, 
and is likened to mutton fat or jade. The best Sung Ting-yao 
is white and lustrous, the inferior coarser and yellowish. It (the 
yellower kind, I presume) is said to have been the origin of the 
wares of Korea and Satsuma. It has been imitated, under suc- 
ceedmg Dpiasties, down to the present day. Of the K'ang-hsi 
period there are two sorts of Fen-ting, (1) reticulated with 
brown Imes, and mottled with hght buff clouds ; (2) more 
delicate, approaching egg-shell and ivory white. Fen-tmg 
decorated with blue is the Chinese " soft paste " so much prized 
by American collectors. It is surprisingly light when handled, 
and is generally crackled. 

The white from Ching-te-chen is often very beautiful in 
substance and shape. It is used by the imperial household in 
times of mourning, and the cups and bowls are decorated with 
dragons, etc., engraved under the glaze, sometimes so delicately 
that the decorations cannot be seen till the piece is held up to 


the light. The Yung-lo period is celebrated for its white, and 
the Hstian-te still more celebrated. It is beautiful in the 
periods K'ang-hsi, Yung-cheng, and Ch'ien-lung, when technical 
perfection was reached, the white pieces of these periods being 
very regular in shape, and without the pitting often found on 
older pieces. 

The white glazes are of every degree of opacity, from 
perfect transparency to a curd-like enamel. In tinge they 
vary from the snowiest white to yellowish, bluish, greenish, 
and sometimes pinkish. In the Chinese " History of King- 
te-chin," translated by Julien, different whites are described 
as " of the moon," of " flour," and " of snow." White pieces 
include, besides articles already mentioned, flower vases, bottles, 
and beakers of all sizes, decorated by incision or by moulded 
flowers, fish, monsters, etc., beneath the glaze. Vegetable 
ashes are said to have been employed in the composition of 
a pure white glaze. 

Section B. — Single-coloured Glazes. 

There is no class of porcelain m which the Chinese 
show a more marked superiority than in that of which the 
decoration consists simpl}^ in covering the whole surface of 
the piece with coloured glaze. The earliest pieces sent to 
Europe were of this class, or blue and white. This class 
may be divided into two: (1) single glazes, or glazes of one 
colour only; (2) variegated glazes, in which two or more 
colours appear on the same piece in streaks and splashes. 
The single glazes are the older, at least in intention, the 
variegation being due m the first instance not to design, 
but to the accident of the kiln. Vases undergoing such 
changes in process of firing were therefore called "trans- 
mutation " vases or Yao-pien by the Chinese, and we are 
told that at first they were regarded as failures and little 


Egg-shell Plate painted in over-giaze cobalt blue, with a few 
touches of buff, the rim being also tipped with a line of 
buff. It is decorated with a familiar scene, a young man- 
darin sitting at a table playing on the flute, while a j^oung 
lady seated opposite keeps time with her fan, and a parrot 
on a perch behind is apparently screaming in concert. 
The usual adjuncts of a cultivated interior fill in the 
picture, jars for wine and water, incense-burning appa- 
ratus, a dish of Buddha's-hand citrons to scent the air, a 
tray with tea-pot and cups on the table, etc. The rim is 
decorated with a band of floral scrolls interrupted by four 
small medallions containing orchid blossoms, suggestive 
in China of a loving couple. (Diam. 8| in.) (Victoria 
and Albert Museum, 1987, '55.) 


prized. Later, however, especially during the present Dynasty, 
they have come into great favour. 

In the Sung Dynasty the single glazes appear to have 
been celadon, blue, yellow, black, purple, and red. Some 
account of these early pieces will be found in the Historical 
Summary (see p. 17). Sometimes they were appUed to hard, 
untransparent stoneware. They were due to the oxidation of 
cobalt (blue), iron (celadon greens and yellow [buff colour]), 
copper (red), and manganese (black and purple). At first the 
colours were probably all baked at the highest temperature, 
and were confined to celadon, blue, red, and brown, but at 
a time we cannot determine it was found that certain colours 
and glazes which could not bear the extreme heat of the 
kiln could be safely fired in the more temperate parts of 
the same kiln, and colours baked in the great kiln are now 
divided into grand feu and demi-grand feu. The petit feu 
colours or, vitreous enamels used in painting over the glaze 
are baked at a lower temperature in the muffle kiln. 

The following, according to Dr. Bushell, are the colours 
employed in decorating Chinese porcelain"^: — 

1. Grand feu (4). — Blue (cobalt), and Red (copper) applied 

on the unbaked clay with a feldspathic flux ; celadon 
and deep brown, from iron, apphed on the biscuit 
with a nitre and lead flux. 

2. Demi-grand feu (3). — Turquoise blue from coj)per ; purple 

from manganese ; yellow from iron containing 

3. Petit feu (Muffle). — Greens from copper ; crimson and 

pink from gold ; blue from cobalt ; yellows from 
antimony ; coral red from iron ; black, impure 
oxide of manganese ; white, arsenious acid. 

* Three of these only are emj)loyed for single-coloiired imperial services, 
viz. purplish brown (aubergine), camellia-leaf green, and deep yellow. White 
is only used when the Court is in mourning. 


Single Glazes. 

The old single glaze pieces were decorated with grand feu 
and deinii-grancl feu colours only, but many, if not all, of the 
petit feu colours have in later times been used to cover the 
whole surface. From these comparativelj'' few materials a great 
variety of tints were produced, which are known by various 
names. Most of these names are contained in the following 
list :— 

Reds: From copper: Sang-de-boeuf, sang-de-'poulet, sang- 
de-pigeon, crimson, peach-bloom, crushed strawberry, maroon, 
hver. From iron : VermiHon, coral, tomato. From gold : 
Ruby, rose, pink. 

Of the copper colours, sang-de-boeuf and " peach-bloom " 
are the most prized. Sang-de-boeuf is said to have been 
invented in the early part of the reign of K'ang-hsi, by the 
famous Lang Ting-tso (see p. 40), Governor of Ching-te-chen, 
and is called Lang-yao, after him. The term sang-de-bo&uf 
is sometimes used to denote a very large class of Jiarabd 
pieces, some of them very beautiful, in which the red colour, 
much Uke congealed blood on some pieces, more like 
crimson on others, is streaked and splashed with blue. The 
prime distinction as to colour of the true sang-de-boeuf 
(which is a real single glaze) is that it is a yellow, not a 
blue red, shoaling into a flame colour at the neck, and through 
a ruby red to a brownish red (like brown sherry) at the base. 
Other distinctions are that the colour is curiously mottled, 
and that the glaze is crackled (which is not the case with 
any other red). Another mark of true Lang-yao is a mathe- 
matically correct line of pure white glaze round the rim and 
another round the foot, which is a feature not found on 
later pieces. To produce the colour the glaze requires to be 
melted to perfect fluidity, and modern potters cannot prevent 
it from running down, so that the neck of a bottle is left 
whitish, and drops have to be ground off the base. The 

Fig. 19.— four-legged censee, with 
cover, of turquoise 





bottom of true pieces of Lang-yao are glazed with apple 
green, or rice colour, or pure white. There are many shades 
of sang-de-bceuf, from light to dark. Several of them are 
chromo-lithographed in the catalogue of the Walters collec- 
tion, which is rich in specimens of this glazing, fine pieces 
of which are worth hundreds of pounds. 

The "peach-bloom," or "peach-blow," glaze is a later variety, 
first produced in the reign of K'ang-hsi according to Dr. Bushell'^ ; 
but not earher than Y^ung-cheng, according to Mr. Hippisley, 
who calls it " a dull white pink upon an under ground of pale 
sea green," a description which scarcely does justice to its 
deHcate beauty. It is very much like in tint to " crushed 
strawberry," but a paler colour, and has the peculiarity of 
being sown with little points of bright apple green, a 
colour which sometimes comes through the pink in large 
splotches, or "clouds." In rare cases the green covers half 
the surface, as in a small piece now in the Walters collection. 
" Peach-bloom," as a single glaze, was little known or admired 
till within recent years. According to Dr. Bushell, most if 
not all of the pieces which have entered the market and 
fetch such enormous prices (especially in America), came 
from the hereditary collection of the Prince of Yi, the 
descendant of K'ang-hsi (see p. 41). One famous piece, a 
small vase, eight inches only in height, was sold in New York 
for $15,000. It is in the Walters collection, and was offered 
to Mr. Hippisley in Peking for less than $200 gold. Accord- 
ing to Dr. Bushell, " peach-bloom " is called Chiang-tou Hung 
in China, from its resemblance to the variegated beans of the 
DoUchos Sinensis — Chiang-tou. The Chinese call it " apple 
red " also. Pieces of it are prized by the Chinese for decorat- 
ing the writing table, such as water bottles in the shape of 
apples and pomegranates. It is probable that sang-de-hoeuf, 
"peach-bloom," and other copper reds Avere first produced by 

* The Doctor, ho-vvever, refers to wine cups of this tint produced in the time of 
Hsiian-te (" Walters Collection," p. 164). 


accident in attempts to obtain the celebrated copper red, the 
" sacrificial red " of Hstian-te, which was used as a single glaze 
as well as for painting fish, etc., on white under the glaze. 
The terms sang-de-pigeon and sang-de-poulet are applied 
to stippled or sowfflS reds more uniform but less brilliant 
than sang-de-h(Buf. They are not mottled or crackled, and 
are later than K'ang-hsi, probably Yung-cheng or Ch'ien-lung. 
A deep crimson red is often used to cover pieces modelled 
in the round — statuettes of saints and animals and clumps 
of fungus, from the points and rims of which the colour runs, 
leaving spots and lines unglazed. Such pieces were made by 
the great Lang. There is a figure of a Bodhisattva in the 
Walters collection of true Lang-yao. 

The iron reds include every shade of coral, from dark red 
through vermilion to pale pink. They contain some strong, 
vivid, and delicate colours, but they are hard and thin in 
comparison with the copper reds. They came into great 
prominence in the reign of Ch'ien-lung. 

The gold reds, from crimson through rouge red to pale 
pink, are soft and deHcate as the petals of a rose, and are 
most frequently employed in overglaze paintmg with enamels, 
especially on pieces of the class known as the famille rose, 
which commenced in the latter part of the reign of K'ang- 
hsi, but they are used to cover backs of saucers and plates, 
and sometimes whole bottles and vases. 

Greens : Gros vert, apple green, snakeskin, cucumber, 
emerald green, celadon, pea green. 

Celadon (sea green) and its varieties (an account of which 
will be found on pp. 19, 20) come from iron, and pea green is 
produced by a little addition of cobalt to the ordinary celadon 
glaze; the rest, including probabty all, or nearly all, of the 
bronze and olive greens, from copper or a combination of 
copper and iron. 

The rarest green is probably the Lang-yao green, invented, 
like sang-de-boeuf, by Lang Ting-tso. It is described as a 


pale bright apple green, and true pieces have the same 
characteristics as sang-de-boeuf. It is mottled and crackled 
and has the white line round the rim and the foot, at which 
the colour stops dead. The snake-skin, which is iridescent, 
was invented by Ts'ang Ying-hsiian. The cucumber glaze 
should perhaps be included among the flaniM colours, as it 
passes from apple green to olive. 

Blues : Gros bleu, mazarin (or powder blue) , sapphire, 
clctir-de-lune, sky blue, turquoise, peacock, kingfisher. 

The first five of these come from cobalt, the turquoise 
series from copper ; and there is a bright blue mentioned 
by Dr. Bushell which is a mixture of silicate of copper and 
cobaltiferous ore of manganese. 

Whereas the other blues are generally used for plates, 
dishes, bottles, vases, and other ordinary forms, turquoise 
is often found on statuettes and other pieces curiously carved 
and pierced, often in conjunction with " aubergine " purple (a 
mixture of cobalt and manganese). The tint called " sapphire " 
by the Chinese is a very deep blue, and is a slate colour, 
not earlier than Chi'en-lung. 

Yellows : Imperial yellow, citron or lemon yellow, eel-skin 
yellow, straw colour, canary, mustard yellow, orange, sulphur. 

The purest yellows come from antimony, the orange tints 
show the presence of iron. 

The imperial yellow is a deep colour like the yolk of an 
egg. The light enamel yellows were founded on experiments 
in the reign of Yung-cheng. The eel-skin yellow varies 
from brownish " old gold " tints to olive, and was invented 
by Ts'ang Ying-hsiian ; it is difficult to decide whether it 
should be classed with the yellows or the greens, with the 
single glazes or the Jlamhe. 

As some colours like this are intermediate between yellow 
and green, so others like lilac and lavender come between the 
blues and the reds. They are both pale cobalt blue tinged 
with manganese. 


Browns : Chocolate, cKestnut, brown bronze, coffee colour, 
cafe-au-lait, dead leaf, old gold, Nankin, chamois. 

All these browns (the fond laque of the French) come 
from iron, mostly in the form of a ferruginous earth, called 
by the Chinese Tzu-chin. This earth is often used in com- 
bination with other colours to give them a broA\Ti tinge. As 
a smgle glaze it seldom covers the whole piece without any 
other decoration, except in the case of the outsides of cups 
and saucers. On bottles and vases it is generally used with 
white reserves for flowers, etc., painted in colours. It is often 
covered with decorations of flowers, etc., in white slip over 
the glaze. According to Pere d'Entrecolles it was sometimes 
decorated with silver, but such pieces, if any exist, are rare. 
In all cases silver over the glaze is very perishable, even more 
so than gold. Pieces painted with underglaze blue have 
often a ground or bands of this colour, general^ of the lighter 
varieties. On such pieces the blue is of course heightened 
by the yellowish brown, and is often very brilliant. All 
these browns have a silvery metallic lustre, and this is 
perhaps what Pere d'Entrecolles refers to. 

Blacks : Common black ; mirror or metalhc black. 

The flrst of these is produced from impure manganese 
only, and is a dull dead colour, often covered with a thin 
transparent green glaze ; but the " mirror " black has a 
very brilliant glossy surface, and is made of calcined cobalt- 
iferous manganese ore mixed with ordinary white glaze and 
a certain proportion of the ferruginous earth which produces 
the browns named above. It is, like the browns, most often 
used to cover parts and not the whole of a piece, and is often 
decorated with gold. Mirror black was not invented before 
the reign of K'ang-hsi. The other black dates back to the 
Sung Dynasty. 

The only class of colour left is that of the greys. These 
are of every tint, including what is called rice colour. This 
is a neutral tint of varying depth, but alsvays light. It 



I^^^^^^Hj^-. 1 




fe:^ J| 


IP----- , - : ■ jpi 









is often seen on vases of which the crackle is the sole 

Variegated Glazes. 

Some kind of variegation in process of firing seems to be 
incidental to all kinds of pottery. The earliest pale blue 
single glazes of the Sung Dynasty have often patches or 
" clouds " of red or purple, due to the manganese in the 
cobalt, and streaks of red are found in celadon glazes ; but 
the variegated pieces known as jiambd, " flashed," or " trans- 
mutation," the Yao-pieii of the Chinese, yvere at the first 
accidentally produced by the different degrees of oxidation of 
different parts of the same copper silicate glaze in the process 
of " firing." The way in which the effects were produced is 
well described in the following description by Dr. Bushell, 
confirmed by a paragraph in Jacquemart (" Histoire de la 
Ceramique," pp. 54-5) : — "^ 

"The cause of this transmutation is well known. Copper 
in its first degree of oxidation gives to the vitrified glaze the 
bright ruby red tint known by the Chinese as chi-hung or 
' sacrificial red ' ; with more oxygen it produces a brilliant 
green, and at its highest a turquoise blue. Any of these 
etFects may be produced in the chemical laboratory. In the 
furnace the various modifications are produced suddenly by 
the manipulation of the fire. In a clear fire with a strong 
draught all the oxygen is not consumed, and is free to 
combine with the metal in fusion. If, on the other hand, 
the tire be loaded with a thick smoke, the carbonaceous mass 
will greedily absorb all the free oxygen, and the metal will 
attain its minimum degree of oxidation. So, when placed 
in a given moment in these various conditions by the rapid 
and simultaneous introduction of air and sooty vapours, the 
glaze assumes a most picturesque appearance ; the surface 
of the piece becomes diapered with veined and streaked 
coloration, changing and capricious as the flames of spirits ; 


the red oxide passes through violet and green to the pale 
blue peroxide, and is even dissipated completely upon certain 
projections, which become white, and thus furnish another 
happy fortuitous combination." 

Good as this description is, it seems to omit one of the 
most common of the " transmutations " by which the red is 
streaked and splashed with deep blue. This was an effect 
produced in the Chlin-chou kilns of the Sung Dynasty, as is 
well shown in two flower pots in the Walters collection, one 
of which is the original of Plate 94 of the catalogue. It is 
described as " bluish grey with purple and crimson flecks " 
on hard, yellowish stoneware. Another piece, startling in the 
strong contrast of the red and blue, is in the Geological 
Museum in Jermjm Street (C. 108). In the catalogue the 
effect is attributed to blue double silicate of protoxide of 
copper only partially reduced to the state of red silicate of 
copper. Belongmg to the older " transmutations " is that 
known as "mule's liver" and "horse's lung," or both combined. 
It contains red, blue, violet, and yellowish green, in brilliant 
confusion (Franks collection, No. 1738). In this and a 
number of other fiamhe pieces there are splashes and streaks 
of a bright light blue like cobalt, and Dr. Bushell informs 
me, in answer to a question on the subject, that " the blue 
in the flanihe vases referred to is really due to cobalt, in- 
tentionall}'^ introduced as an ingredient of the glazes. In 
the old Chlin-chou pieces the play of colour is owing to the 
varied oxidation of the cobalt manganese and iron con- 
stituents of the complex cobaltiferous mineral found in China. 
In more modern reproductions of the Yao-pien (furnace 
transmutation) class, cobaltiferous manganese and copper oxide 
are mixed with the glaze, as well as sometimes a dash of iron 
peroxide to give brown streaks." 

These modern reproductions are therefore not true Yao- 
pien, but only imitations of it by various skilful devices. 
They include the majority of the pieces in the market which 


Large Vase of the K'ang-hsi period grandly painted in colours, 
relieved by a black enamelled ground. It is covered 
with a floral decoration of tree paeonies, magnolias, peach 
trees, and lilies, with an open-work rockery underneath, 
on which are perched two pheasants. The black gTound 
is characteristically of somewhat greenish tone, and the 
decoration, sketched and shaded with the same black 
enanael, is filled in with two brilliant shades of green, a 
bright yellow, and manganese purple. (H. 20 in.) {Salting 
Collection, No. 33.) 




pass under the name of sang-de-hceuf (see ante), as well as 
a number of bottles and vases called crimson, which look 
like single colours at a little distance, but of which, on closer 
examination, the colour is seen to be produced by a combin- 
ation of small blue and red spots or streaks. Some of the 
modern pieces are very brilliant, but, in the words of Dr. 
Bushell, " wanting in depth, and too glossy." Amongst the 
fiamM pieces figured in colours in the book on the Walters 
collection are — 

Plate XVI. — Turquoise through purple to crimson (Ch'ien- 
XIX. — Iron rust (Ch'ien-lung). 
XXXIII. — Grey amethyst and purple. 

LI. — Peach-bloom with rose spots and apple-green 
clouds (K'ang-hsi). 
LXXXVIII. — Ground of crackled olive-broAvn tint, due to iron 

partially covered with Jianibe glaze in huge 
LXXXV. — Robin's egg {Yung-cMng). 

Pere d'Entrecolles in his two letters (1712, 1722) describes a 
transmutation piece as accidental, and the power to produce 
imitations of them at will is said to have begun in the reign of 
Yung-cheng (1723-1735). Later still they made variegated 
pieces with novel combinations, by blending soft or muffle glazes 
of different colours, by sprinkling, or blowing through a tube 
covered with gauze. The last decoration is called souffle, and 
is itself much earlier than Yung-cheng, and some of the 
simpler variegations were produced by it in the time of Pere 
d'Entrecolles' visit. Three of the most distinct of the later 
variegations are called " iron rust," " robin's egg" and " tea-dust." 

" Robin's egg" which has a general resemblance in tone and 
colour to the thing from which it is named, varies considerably. 
Dr. Bushell describes it as " bluish grey, flecked with red and 
maroon " ; Mr. Gulland (p. 254) as " a bluish, greenish-coloured 


ground, relieved by browti specks and little white circles." 
(These circles are a sign of souffl,4.) It is produced by " com- 
bining nitre, rock crystal, and cobaltiferous manganese with 
ordinary white glaze material" {Bushell). 

" Iron rust " is of much the same colour as the substance 
after which it is called, with blackish specks. 

"Tea-dust" has an olive-green ground flecked with tiny 
spots of lighter green. 

It is not very easy even for experts to decide the age of all 
single glaze and flamibe pieces, as the oldest have always been 
imitated by succeeding generations, but the following are said 
to be the colours of pieces of the Sung Dynasty which Avere sent 
from Peking to Ching-te-chen by the Emperor Yung-cheng to 
be imitated. The first two reds must have been copper, not 
gold colours : — 

1, Rose crimson; 2, Pyrus japonica pink; 3, aubergine 
purple ; 4, plum-coloured blue ; 5, mule's liver mingled with 
horse's lung ; 6, dark purple ; 7, rice colour ; 8, sky blue ; 
9, transmutation. 

Section C. — Glazes of several Colours. 

This is the name given in the catalogue of the Franks 
collection to an interesting and not very common class of 
Chinese porcelain, which is decorated on the biscuit with 
designs washed or touched with various coloured glazes. The 
designs upon these pieces, says Sir Wollaston, "can scarcely 
be considered painted." Sometimes the ornaments have 
raised outlines, so as to confine the colours to their proper 
places, at others they are engraved in the paste, and in the 
case of modelled pieces, like statuettes of lions, birds, etc., 
glazes of different colours are applied to different parts of the 
piece. They appear to date from very early times, but the 
specimens of the raised outhne class exhibited at the Burling- 
ton Fine Arts Club in ]896 are all supposed to be of the 





date of Chia-ching (1522-1566). Two of them were described 
in the catalogue as follows : — 

37 & 38 Pair of wide-mouthed Jars, with handles on neck and 
loose rings. Most of the body covered ^dth blue glaze, over 
white unglazed porcelain — five-clawed dragons and clouds 
left in white, with traces of having been once nearly entirely 
gilt. The rings on handles unglazed white porcelain. 
(H. 11 in.) 

Mark : Kea-tsing, round the mouth, 1522-1566. 

Lent by Mrs. Edward Bloxam. 

40 A Four-sided Vase. With handles on neck. Similar ware, 
deep blue glaze ground, with fungus, lotus, and symbols in 
green and buff glazes. (H. 12 in.) 

Lent hy Mr. Val, C. Prinsep, R.A. 

The Franks collection contains amongst other pieces — 

Vase, with small neck, the body widening towards the upper part, 
Chinese porcelain ; on it are engraved two dragons among clouds, 
coloured green on a yellow ground. (H. 15 in.) 69. 

Quadrangular Vase. Chinese porcelain with ornaments in 
relief, consisting of the mystical trigrams known as the Pa-kwa, placed 
two on each side, with the circular emblem Yang-png between them ; 
they are coloured sea green and brown relieved by a blue-glazed back- 
ground. (H. 9| in.) 71. 

Pair of Figures of Lions, standing on leaves. Chinese porcelain ; 
one of them green with maroon mane and small yellow cub by its right 
front paw ; the other yellow, with a green mane and movable green 
ball under its left front paw. 72. 

Figure of a Parrot. Of Chinese porcelain, coloured green, and 
resting on a yellow rock. (H. 2| in.) 74. 

Probably the finest specimens ot this class in England are in. 
the South Kensington Museum, and are figured by Mr. Gulland, 


under the title of "Ming biscuit celadon" (Nos. 215,216, 217, 

opposite page 143). 

No. 215. Jar. Early Ming porcelain, vrith decoration in raised 
outline, filled with turquoise, yellow, white, and brown, on a purple 
ground. On the body is a landscape with mounted ofl&cials in antique- 
fashioned costume, accompanied by boys on foot. Above are the eight 
Buddhist emblems and joo-ee heads ; below is a conventional border in 
compartments. Oarved wood stand and cover. (H. 11| in., diam. 

No. 216. Jar. Early Ming porcelain, with decoration in raise 
outline, filled in with blue, yellow, and white on a turquoise ground. 
On the body is a landscape "vvith two men on horseback riding towards 
a house, accompanied by a footboy with a box ; also a mounted official 
with two boys on foot, one carrying a guitar, the other a fan. Above 
are the eight Buddliist emblems with lotus flowers and scrolls, below 
IS a conventional border in compartments. Carved wood stand and 
cover. (H. 12^ in., diam. 14 in.) 

No. 217. Jar. Early Ming porcelain, massive, with the outer 
casing decorated in purple and turquoise, some parts being unglazed 
(where the coarse porcelain shows up biscuit coloured). On the body 
is a landscape Avith mounted figures of antique design — some ^vith 
military hats, and cariying respectively a banner, a spear, and a cross- 
bow ; others in ci^•ilian costume, one of them carrying a lyre. Aljove 
is a floral band, and below is a border Avith a symbol in alternate 
compartments. Carved wood coA^er and stand. (H. 12| in., diam. 

13§ in.) This last, it will be noticed, is a jar with an outer casing 

which is pierced.* 

The most remarkable and celebrated example of this kind 
of decoration is an image of the Goddess Kuan-yin in a Buddhist 
temple at Peking, glazed over biscuit with various colours — 
yellow, red brown, turquoise (drapery), black, old gold, and 


The term " crackle " or " crackled," sometimes spelt 
" crackelled," is applied to pieces in which the glaze is covered 

* This jar is faithfully reproduced in colours in Plate V. 



Fig 22.— old yellow ckackle vase 


with cracks. According to the T'ao Shuo (see Hirth, p. 33), 
Kuan-yao porcelain has a large and irregular crackle called 
" crabs' claws," and Ko-yao a small crackle called " fish-spawn." 
This smaller kind is called by the French truitd, from its 
likeness to the scales of a trout. Really there are crackles of 
many sizes, all of which can now be produced at will, so that 
the same piece has often bands of crackle alternating with plain 
bands. At first " crackle " was, no doubt, accidental. It occurs 
on the oldest existing pieces. The pale blue or clair de lune 
of the Sung Dynasty was often covered with fine crackle with 
purple edges or interstices. The celadon of the same period was 
also often crackled. The j^i'oc^i^^ctions of the brothers Chang, 
under that Dynasty, were distinguished by one being crackled 
and the other not (see p. 18). Franks tells us, " Crackled 
vases were called Tsui-Khi-yao, under the Southern Sung 
Dynasty (1127-1279), and are thus described in the history of 
King-te-chin : ' The clay employed was coarse and compact, 
the vases were thick and heavy, some were of a rice white,"^ others 
pale blue. They used to take some Hoa-chi (steatite), powder 
itj and mix it with the glaze. The vases exhibited cracks run- 
ning in every direction as though broken into a thousand pieces. 
The cracks were occasionally rubbed over with Indian ink or a red 
colour, and the superfluity removed. Then was seen a network of 
charming veins, red or black, imitating the cracks of ice. There 
were also vases on which blue flowers were painted on the 
crackled ground.' 

" A different mode of making the crackles is described in 

* The Chinese term used here is lui-se, which .Tulien first translated cohIchv 
du riz, and thereby misled us all. It really refers to the colour [si) of yellow 
millet {huang mi), not of rice [pai mi). Mi-se m Chinese silks is a full primrose 
yellow ; in Chinese ceramic glazes it often deepens from that tint to a dull mustard 
colour when the materials are less pure. It has often been wondered why the old 
" mustard crackle " of collectors is apparently never alluded to in " L'Histoire des 
porcelaines de King-te-tchin." It is necessary to substitute yellow for "rice- 
coloured " in the text generally, remembering always that a paler tone is indicated 
than that of the imperial yellow, which Jlr. Monkhouse justlj* likens to the yolk of 
an egg.— S. W. B. 


anotlier Chinese work, atid is as follows : •' After covering the 
vases with glaze, they are exposed to a very hot sun, and when 
they have become hot, they are plunged into cold water for a 
moment, On being baked they appear covered with innumer- 
able cracks.' " 

It appears from another passage in the history of King-te- 
chin (Ching-te-chen) that the size of the cracks depended on the 
tine or coarse washing of the paste. 

But these last two notions, according to M. Solon, are quite 
incorrect. He writes : — " The crackled glaze is obtained by 
altering the respective proportions of silica and alumina in 
the composition of the glaze. In this way the size of the 
crackling can be reduced or enlarged at will, and bands of 
glazes with small and large crackles can be disposed upon the 
same vase, and alternate upon the surface with other bands 
of a glaze perfectly smooth." 

There is some connection, however, between the colour and 
the crackle. Turquoise is nearly always finely crackled, and so 
is yellow; few, if any, of the reds, except sang-de-bceuf, are 
crackled at all, and the crackle of sang-dc-hoeuf is broad. 
Celadon is sometimes crackled and sometimes not, and when 
crackled the crackling varies in size. The crackle on white or 
whitish ground varies most ; sometimes it is very sparse and 
erratic in its cracks, sometimes, as in the Fen-ting or so-called 
"soft paste," very fine and regular. Crackled pieces may be 
divided into two kinds: (1) When the crackle is a striking part 
of the decoration. (2) When it is not. The first is perhaps the 
only kind Avhich is properly described as a " class." It is usually 
of white or grey or pale celadon, with deep brown ornaments in 
relief, the shapes and decoration alike taken from antique 
bronzes. The following descriptions of pieces in the Franks 
collection are of this kind : — 

Oval Libation Cup. Chinese crackle porcelain, brownish, with 
moulded ornaments in relief, dog, stork, dragon's head, stag, etc. 
(L. 3| in., h. 2| in.) 75. 


Large Vase, painted in similar colours to the last, with an 
enamelled background of brilliant green. The floral deco- 
ration is composed on one side of blossoming prunus trees 
with a pair of magpies perched in the branches ; on the 
other of pteonies, with rocks underneath, all outlined and 
shaded in black. In addition to the usual colours, the 
pseonies are tipped with coral red, and the petals of the 
prunus blossoms are occasionally touched with gold, rarely 
with coral red like the pseonies. The mark underneath is 
Ta Ming Ch'eng hua nien chih : " Made in the reign of 
Ch'eng-hua of the Great Ming (Dynasty)," but the tech- 
nique and colouring seem rather to indicate the period of 
K'ang-hsi (1622-1722). (H. 30 in.) {Saltimj Collection, 
No. 59.) 


Bottle. Cliinese crackle porcelain, greenish ; two handles in the 
form of monsters' heads, and a band of various patterns in relief, 
coloured dark brown. (H. 7 in.) 76. 

Low Vase, with two handles in the form of monsters' heads 
bronzed over. Chinese porcelain ; the outside of a grey blue, crackled ; 
the upper part of inside also crackled ; the cracks are filled in with 
brown. (H. 2| in., w. 4^ in.) 78. 

Vase, with two handles in the form of monsters' heads. Chinese 
porcelain ; on the body eight horses in various attitudes, in slight 
relief, and outlined in blue and brown ; the ground is crackled, the 
ci'acks being filled in with a bufF colour. These horses are pi'obably 
intended to represent the eight famous horses of Muh Wang, a 
monarch of the Chow Dynasty, B.C. 1001. (H. 6 in.) 96. 


Slip, or engohe, is clay or " paste " in a semi-liquid state. It 
has been frequently used in decorating pottery of all kinds in 
all parts of the world. In this class of Chinese porcelain it is 
applied to a coloured ground and modelled into various shapes 
and patterns, often Avith the greatest delicacy. Groups of 
flowers, insects, birds, etc., are treated in such slight relief that 
the colour of the ground appears like a grey through the thinner 
parts. It is much the same process as that which has been 
brought to such perfection by M. Solon, and is known in modern 
ceramics as pdte-sur-pdte. The ground to which the slip is 
applied in China is generally brown, but not always, as will be 
seen from the following descriptions of pieces in the Franks 
collection. This kind of decoration was often imitated in 
Persian pottery, sometimes by the same process, sometimes by 
removing the brown glaze so that the white paste below showed 
in the form of the desired decoration. It is probable that some 
of the pieces in the Franks collection were made for the Persian 


Bottle -Shaped Vase, 'probably part of a narghili. Chinese 
porcelain, covered externally with a dark brown glaze, on which are 
moulded in low relief, in white, two fern plants. (H. 11 in.) 98. 

Bottle-Shaped Vase, probably part of a narghili. Chinese 
porcelain, covered with dark blue glaze, on which are moulded, in 
white, two bi-anches of prunus. (H. 12| in.) 99. 

Vase, with swelling body, and two lions' heads in relief as handles. 
Chinese porcelain, covered with a greyish blue glaze, on which are 
moulded in slight relief, in white, two vases containing flowers. 
(H. 10^ in.) " 100. 

Pair of Bottles. Chinese porcelain, covered externally with a 
deep lavender glaze ; on the front is a prunus tree worked on in slip, 
slightly raised. (H. 9| in.) 102. 


Section A. — Painted in Blue under the Glaze — "Blue 

AND White." 

Althougli we hear nothing of painting in bkie before the Yuan 
Dynasty, blue was from the earliest time one of the most 
favourite colours. In the Chin Dj^nasty (266-419), Dr. Bushell 
says, blue porcelain (or pottery) was called p'iao-tz'u, resembling 
in colour the pale blue shade (p'iao) of certain silks. In the 
T'ang Dynasty (618-906) it was called the blue colour of distant 
hills; in the After Chou Dynasty (951-960) the blue of the sky 
after rain. At one period it was called the prohibited colour, be- 
cause it was reserved for the Sovereign. Afterwards under the 
Sung Dynasty (960-1279), although other colours were also used, 
the Ju-chou porcelain was baked with a pale blue glaze. The 
finest imperial porcelain of the time was peacock blue, and the 
crackled Ko-yao and the ordinary Lung-ch'iian porcelain of the 
same time, though most of it was celadon, were also of a bluish 
shade. Nevertheless, we hear nothing of painted decoration in 


-I 03 

H ^ 

I— ( M 

3 S 


blue, what vre mean by " blue and white," till the Yuan Dynasty, 
and have no specimens of it earlier than the Ming Dynasty. 

As has already been said, " blue and white " for practical 
{i.e. collectors') purposes, as well as the system of date marks, 
may be regarded as commencing with the Ming Dynasty, and 
pieces of blue and white before the days of Chia-ching (1522- 
1566) are scarcely to be found. Such assistance as words can 
give to enable the collector to identify genuine pieces of Yung-lo, 
Hsiian-te and Ch'^ng-hua, will be found in the chapter on the 
Ming Dynasty, and here I would only remind the collector that 
the date marks, by themselves, are no proof of age, and that 
genuine Ming pieces will not be so perfectly potted nor so 
delicately painted as the ware produced under the present 
Dynasty from K'ang-hsi downwards. The glaze will be of a 
bluer tinge generally, the paste less white and often pitted, and 
the shapes irregular. There is a ruder and more barbaric touch 
in all Ming ware. The pecuHar soft but rich quality of the 
" Mohammedan " blue, as it was called, and the boldness of the 
decoration are perhaps its most delightful qualities. The former 
was confined to certain reigns, especially Hsiian-te, Cheng-te 
and Chia-ching, all brilliant, but Hsiian-te paler than the others. 
Writing of some early pieces possibly decorated with " Moham- 
medan " blue, which were exhibited by the Burlington Fine Arts 
Club in 1895, I remarked that though the blue was splendid in 
colour it was of the same strength and tone throughout, and that 
" powerful as the colour is, and never flat or dead, we miss that 
charm of modulation, the delight in gradation, and the palpi- 
tating quality of colour which we find in later work." And 
these observations may, I hope, be of some use in enabling 
collectors to recognise fine Ming " blue and white," if they come 
across it. They should remember also that though the Ch'eng- 
hua period was celebrated for the beauty of its decoration, and 
for blue and white wine-cups as thin as paper, it was not cele- 
brated for the beauty of its blue, as the foreign supplies of the 
finest cobalt failed during the reign. To the purely £esthetic 


collector this will matter little, but to the historic collectors it 
is of much importance, as most of the finest " blue " bears the 
date of Ch'eng-hua. During the Ming Dynasty, when the 
foreign blue failed, the Chinese used their native blue, prepared 
from cobaltiferous ore of manganese, which they afterwards had 
to depend upon entirely. Great care was used in the preparation 
of the Mohammedan blue. It " was broken up with the hammer, 
and the pieces which showed on fracture vermilion spots were 
picked out as the first-class blue, those with silver stars being- 
used for the medium colour, and from each sixteen ounces of 
these pieces three ounces remained after the incineration in a 
covered vessel. The remaining fragments were thrown into 
water, impurities drawn off' by magnetic iron ore, and the residue 
yielded another thirtieth part b}'^ Aveight of the true blue. If 
this blue were employed alone the colour was apt to spread, and 
it was necessary to add a proportion of native blue, not too 
much, or the colour would be heavy and dull. The ' first-class 
blue ' was a mixture of ten parts of the first with one of the last, 
the ' average blue ' of about equal parts, and this came out of the 
kiln with each stroke of the brush clearly defined. The first- 
class blue mixed with much water and spread over the surface 
in mass gave a pure and transparently bright tint " (Bioshell). 

Although the modern collector may well despair of possess- 
ing an undisputed piece of the earlier periods of Ming, such as 
Yung-lo, Hstian-te, or Ch'eng-hua, he need not suffer from such 
despondency in regard to the later periods of the same Dynasty, 
especially Wan-li. More pieces of these periods are in existence, 
partly because they have not had to stand the risks of so many 
years, and partly because the production was enormous. 

According to the Chinese official statistics of the province 
of Chiang-hsi, no less than 105,770 pairs of things made of 
porcelain were ordered for the use of the palace in the fifth year 
of Lung-ch'ing (1571), and in this reign and the next the records 
are filled with the remonstrances of the censors at the extra- 
vagance of the imperial orders. " Such wholesale production," 


Four-sided Vase of the K'ang-hsi period with scroll handles 
fashioned in the fonn of dragons of ancient bronze design 
(ch'ih-lung). The decoration is painted in enamel colours, 
cobalt blue, manganese purple, and two shades of green, 
with an enamelled yellow ground. It consists of flowering 
trees springing from behind rocks, pseonies, cherry trees, 
and pheasants in front, blossoming prunus and magpies at 
the back ; on the two sides of vases with flowers, vessels 
for incense and wine, books and all the usual parapher- 
nalia of the hundred antiques (po-ku). The foot is painted 
Avith a brocaded ground interrupted by foliated medallions 
containing sprays of flowers and butterflies. (H. 20 in.) 
{Scdting Collection, No. 1016.) 




>^. -^^v-^ 



says Dr. Bushell, "accounts for the abundance of porcelain ot 
this date (Wan-li) in Peking, where a street-hawker may be 
seen Avith sweetmeats piled on dishes over a 3^ard in diameter, 
or ladling iced syrup out of Ming boAvls, and there is hardly a 
butcher's shop without a large Ming jar, generally broken it is 
true, on the counter, for throwing in scraps of meat." The lists 
of the things requisitioned by the Emperors Chia-ching, Lung- 
ch'ing, and Wan-li, are still extant, and translations from two of 
them are given by Dr. Bushell. The designs are said to have 
been principally derived fi-om brocaded satin and ancient 
embroidery. From these hsts we learn that in the eighth year 
of Chia-ching (a.d. 1529) the pieces of " blue and white " ordered 
for the palace included bowls, tall cups, wine cups, tea cups, 
wine jars, dishes, jars with covers, jars, vases, large round dishes, 
boxes, large bowls for goldfish, fish bowls, large wine vessels, and 
wine vessels. These were decorated with dragons pursuing 
pearls, dragons among clouds or sea-waves, dragons coiling 
through lotus flowers, dragons flying with phoenixes and cranes ; 
nearly all the pieces appear to have been decorated with dragons. 
Lions flying or playing with embroidered balls, the eight famous 
horses of the Emperor Mu Wang, the waterfalls of Ssil Ch'uan, 
the eight Taoist immortals, playing children (often with a 
balance for VN^eighing gold), peacocks (with Mutan pceonies), and 
fishes also seem to have been favourite subjects of design ; while 
among the " flora " of the decorative world were bamboo, fungus, 
the flowers of the four seasons (paeony, lotus, chrysanthemum, 
and plum), "Indian" lotus, and flowers "celestial" and "fairy." 
If we add the precious emblems, mystic diagrams, and characters 
for happiness, longevity, health, peace, etc., we shall almost 
exhaust the list of things painted on the "blue and white" 
ordered for the palace in 1529. 

In a list ordered for the Emperor Wan-li we find several 
articles, which are absent from the Chia-ching list summarised 
above — viz. saucer-shaped plates, plates, chopstick dishes, censers, 
vases with spouts, slop boxes, vinegar bottles, chessboards, oil 


lamps, pricket candlesticks; screens, pencil barrels, pencil handles, 
perfume boxes, fan boxes, pencil rests, pallet water bottles, betel 
nut boxes, hat boxes, handkerchief boxes, garden seats. Censers, 
perfume boxes, and vinegar droppers are included in the list of 
the intermediate reign of Lung-ch'ing, and some of the other 
articles may have been included under other names in the 
Chia-chmg list ; but the chessboards, oil lamps, pricket candle- 
sticks, garden seats, screens, and several articles for the writing 
table, such as pencil barrels, pencil handles, pencil rests, and 
palette water bottles, appear to be additions to the articles made 
in porcelain for the palace in the reign of Chia-ching. It would 
perhaps be rash to take for granted that the imperial lists 
included all novelties, but it is at least probable that they did 
so, and the collector may look with reasonable suspicion on a 
date mark prior to Wan-li found upon these particular articles. 
With regard to decoration it may be said that, judging from 
these lists, the decoration was more elaborate, including more 
subjects on the same piece. For instance, about the most 
elaborate descriptions in the Chia-ching list are : — 

" Bowls decorated with sea- waves and eight dragons emerging 
therefrom, holding up the mystical trigrams, inside, with the 
three Taoist alchemists compounding the elixir vitce." 

" Boivls with bamboo leaves and polyporus fungus ; medallions 
contaming dragons among clouds, dragons and phoenixes flying 
through flowers ; " and 

" Bowls with four fishes, mackerel, carp, marbled perch, and 
another, outside, birds flying in clouds inside." 

But these are simple in decoration compared with the 
bowls ordered in the Wan-li period, as the following descrip- 
tions will show : — 

"Bowls decorated outside with dragons and clouds, lotus 
flowers, fish, boys playing, the seal characters Fu, Shou, K'ang, 
Ning", arabesques, sea monsters and lions playing with em- 
broidered balls ; inside, Avith cranes and clouds, a single spray 
of lotus, lilies, sceptres, and clouds." 

Fig. 24. — blue and white aster dish. 

■ ,:;:°«>°"-°" 



"Bowls with outside dragon medallions, phoenixes, the 
eight precious symbols on brocaded ground, sea waves, Fu, Lu, 
Shou, the gods of happiness, rank, and longevity, and branch- 
ing fungus ; inside, a pair of dragons upholding longevity 
characters, jasmine flowers, and coloured * phoenixes flying 
through the flowers of the four seasons." 

While the variety of the decoration on the same piece 
increases there are a few very notable additions to the decor- 
ative elements, such as historical scenes, familiar scenes, and 
landscapes of various kinds. Among trees the peach tree 
and the fir make their appearance ; among animals, real and 
fabulous, deer, tigers, sea horses, elephants, and magpies; 
among flowers, lilies, hibiscus, olea fragrans and orchids, water 
plants (distinguished from lotus) ; while grapes, pomegranates, 
garlands of fruit in Mohammedan style, and Sanscrit (Buddhist) 
mscriptions are motives for decoration not seen in the Chia- 
ching list. But all these things were made for the palace, 
and one cannot say that other articles were not made for 
general consumption in China, and decorated in a different 
style. We know, however, that during the later reigns of the 
Ming Emperors, especially Lung-ch'ing and Wan-li, large 
quantities of blue and white ware were exported to Persia 
and India and other Eastern countries, and that a great deal 
of this has since found its way to Europe, esjjecially from 
Persia, This class of " blue and white " is generally bold and 
rough, and of a heavy dull blue, and so does not suit the taste 
of the modern connoisseur, but it is very vigorous and has the 
true Ming style, as distinguished from the more beautiful but 
more effeminate style of the reigning Dynasty from K'ang-hsi 
to the present day. So different is it in some respects fi'om the 
more delicate varieties of blue and white that it has been sup- 
posed to have been manufactured, not at Ching-te-chen, but at 

* " Coloured." In this Wan-li list, as in the Lung-ch'ing list mentioned by 
Dr. Bushel], manj' pieces decorated with enamel colours are included in the 
section described as " Painted in blue on white ground." 


some unknown place in South-Western China ; but Dr. Bushell 
does not agree to this theory. Some specimens of it were shown 
at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1895, when its charac- 
teristics were described in the introduction to the catalogue as 
follows : " The colour, though full and effectively varied from 
almost black to a light grey, is of a slatey quality. The decora- 
tion is bold, sometimes, especially on small pieces, carefully 
drawn and well finished, but often rough and sketchy. The 
edges of the plates and dishes are generally divided into four- 
sided radiating panels which are repeated on the under side. 
Most of the pieces have sand adhering to the glaze beneath. 
The centre of the large round dishes, which are a characteristic 
of this class, is often occupied by animals, especially birds, in a 
landscape. The panels on the edges are generally occupied with 
bold conventional flowers, symbols, and writing implements." 
Nearly all the pottery made in Persia during the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, which shows Chinese influence, imitates 
this style of decoration. 

Besides these specimens of Chinese porcelain made for the 
Persian market were others made as certainly to suit the taste 
of the natives of Hindostan, many of which were lent by Mrs. 
Halsey, including a vase (No. 40) said to have been sent by the 
Emperor Wan-li to Jehangir the Mogul Emperor. There were 
indeed so many pieces in this collection of Ming " blue and 
white " that it appears to me worth while to quote here the 
entries in the catalogue respecting them. If the list cannot be 
regarded as in any way exhaustive of the products of this 
Dynasty, and may contain some later pieces, it fairly represents 
the classes of Ming porcelain, specimens of which may yet be 
obtained by the collector in England. He cannot, indeed, count 
on securing such specimens of the fine old blue as those (Nos. 
84 to 87) which came from Burghley House, or as Mr. Louis 
Huth's little bowl (No. 32), or Mr. Prinsep's bottle (No. 22), or 
Mr. Mills's vase (No. 4), but he may come across pieces similar 
to most of the others, even to those rare deep moulded (Nos. 


Vase painted in colours of the grand feu, copper-red of maroon 
tint passing into varied " peacli-bloom " shades, and 
celadon, Avith a bleu fouette ground. The celadon parts 
and the white reserves are worked in slight relief, with 
engraved details. The decoration consists of the Pa 
Hsien, the " Eight Genii " of the Taoist cult, disporting in 
the clouds, and holding up the attributes by which they 
may be distinguished. The mark, pencilled in blue under- 
neath the foot, is Ta Wmg Ch'eng hua nien chih — i.e. 
" Made in the reign of Ch'eng-hua of the Great Ming 
(Dynasty)." (H. 18 in.) {Saltinrj Collection, No. 1023.) 


2, 3, and 28) basins Avith flanged edge, which are specially 
referred to in the introduction to the catalogue as corresponding 
in many respects to what we are told of the porcelain of Yung-lo. 
(1) They are very thin (eggshell is said to have been invented in 
this reign) ; (2) they have flanges to their rims ; and (3) they 
have a bird at the bottom on the inside. Moreover, " Though 
they are decorated with very different subjects, there is a certain 
freedom in the drawing, an apparent freshness of invention, 
and signs of an immediate contact with nature, especially in the 
insects on No. 28." Such bowls are indeed rare, but I know of 
two which have been picked up in London quite recently. 

Ming "Blue and White." 

{Extracts from Catalogvue of Blue and White Oriental Porcelain 
exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1895.) 

1 A Bottle. A processional subject, including several figures with 

banners, etc. Lotus much conventionalised up the neck. 
(H. 15 in.) Lent hy Dr. Hamilton. 

2 Basin. Very thin, flanged rim. Figures in landscape outside. 

Birds, etc., inside. (H. 4| in.) 

Lent by Mr. Cosmo Monkhouse. 

3 Bulbous Vessel, with metal cover and chains. Apparently a 

bottle cut down. Formal decoration with conventionalised 

Mark : A leaf (the " Outong " or Artemisia leaf). 

Lent by Mr. H. S. Theobald. 

4 *A broad circular Vase and Cover. Decorated with various 

water plants in blue, and yellow fish over the glaze on the 

vase, and red fish in same way on the cover. 

Mark: Kea-tsing, 1522-1567. 

Lent by Mr. R. Mills. 

* If the date mark of this piece be correct, as I believe it is, it shows that over- 
glaze decoration commenced as early as Chia-ching (Kea-tsing). 


5 Basin. Similar to Nos. 2 and 28 in size and shape. Decorated 

with three figures of Buddhist Priests, alternating with 
tiger, serpent, etc. ; bird, etc., inside. 

Lent hy Mr. Wickham Flower. 

6 Gingfer Jar. No cover. Decoration, pine, bamboo, and prunus 

with birds. (H. 7^ in.) Lent hy Mrs. Halsey. 

7 Bottle. Decorated with chrysanthemum, pseony, and other 

flowers, and birds. (H. 12 in.) 

Lent hy Mrs. Halsey. 

8 A slender GargOUlette, with long spout, and the top ending 

with six points. Three figures, with birds, palms, and other 
decoration of somewhat Persian character. (H. 8 in.) 

Lent by Mr. R. Mills. 

9 Deep Plate. Decorated with five formal flowers and four China- 

men between them, wavy edge with points, deep blue. 
(Diam. 9|in.) 

Marh: Ch'ing-hwa, 1465-1488. 

Lent hy Mr. W. G. Hawlinson. 

10 Plate, with wavy edge, formal star pattei'n in centre, with peeony 

leaves and fong-hoa birds round. (Diam. 8 in.) 

Lent hy Mr. G. Salting. 

11 Very deep Plate, wavy edge. Writing utensils in centre, with 

the same as symbols round the slope of edge. (Diam. 8^ in.) 

Lent hy Mr. C S. Kennedy. 

12 Pair of Plates, alike, with variation in centre ; thin wavy edges, 

a cricket in centre of one and flowers in basket in centre of 
the other. (Diam. 8 in.) Lent hy Mr. G. Salting. 

13 A Plate, pale blue. Two deer in centre on background of pine, 

prunus, and bamboo ; floriated border with birds round rim. 
(Diam. 8 in.) Lent hy Mr. J. P. Heseltine. 

14 Similar Plate. Lent hy General Mackenzie. 


^^v ^^H 

^B " ^ ^^1 

^B^i ;r. JH 

^^^^L 'vf^ ' ^"^^^^^^l 

K ^^2^,.^^ 1 

^^^^^^^^^^^r '*^"' ^^^^^^^^^1 

Fig. 25.— KUAN yin, the Chinese 



15 Deep Basin. Mounted in English silver j^lt (Elizabethan Hall 

Mark), divided into four panels ; vases of lotus flowers and 
birds. (H. 3| in.) 

Lent by Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B. 

16 Globular Vase. No cover, with four slightly raised circular 

panels with landscape edged with lotus leaves, and lotus 
leaves raised round top and base of neck. (H. 12^ in.) 
Mark : Sacred fungus inside double ring. 

Lent by Lord Battersea. 

17 Saucer-shaped Dish. Closely covered with chrysanthemum, 

lotus, and other flowers in dark blue. The back of rim 
powdered blue, with flowers pencilled in white. (D. 15| in.) 
Mark: Ch'ing-hwa, U6.5-U88. 

Lent by Mrs. Halsey. 

18 Bottle-shaped Jar. Kylin and formal pseony decoration. 

(H. 8 in.) Lent by Mrs. Halsey. 

19 Deep Dish. Centre decoration, two cai-p rising to the surface. 

A white interval, and a bold landscape border to rim. 
(Diam. 16^ in.) Lent by Mrs. Halsey. 

20 A GargOUlette, in shape of a toad, with semicircular handle. 

(H. 7 in.) 

The toad, like the hare, was supposed to inhabit the moon. 

Lent by Mrs. Hahey. 

21 A similar Vessel, in the shape of an elephant. (H. 1\ in.) 

Both these pieces are believed to be moditications of the 
gargoulette made in South-Western China for Indian use, the 
design in each instance being copied from Indian metal 
vessels used as hookahs, and these porcelain vessels being 
intended for the same purpose for importation into India. 

Lent by Mrs. Halsey. 

22 Double Gourd-shaped Bottle. Circular panels in deep blue, 
representing cranes, fong-hoa, and live-clawed dragons, the 


intervals filled with formal floral decorations. (H. 18| in.) 

Lent by Mr. Val. C. Prinsep, R.A. 

Mark: Kea-tsing, 1522-1567. 

23 A Saucer- shaped Dish. Decoration, the fong-hoa bird in 

centre, four-clawed dragons round the border, with four 

circular panels with the " Pa-kwa " * symbols, and six 

circular floral decorations at back. (Diam. 14| in.) 

Mark : " Fuh-kwei-kia-ki." Fine vessel for the rich and 


Leyit by Mrs. Halsey. 

24 A small Jugf, the decoration being in dull blue enamel over the 

glaze, and of Persian character. Underneath is a spotted 
deer — brown enamelled in same way — probably the badge of 
the owner, and not a Hall Mark. (H. 4 in.) 

Lent by Mr. R. Mills. 

25 A flat-sided Pilgrim's Bottle. Pseony decoration in dull blue. 

Probabl}' copied from an ordinary Indian or Pei'sian vessel 

of same description. (H. 9 in.) 

Lent by Mrs. Halsey. 

26 Saucer-shaped Dish. Coarse paste, but interesting as an early 

specimen of the prunus blossom in outline on white ground, 
with some birds roughly drawn. (Diam. 11 in.) 

Lent by Mrs. Hahey. 

27 Plate, with pagoda and landscape in middle, and a border on 

rim oi lotus and egrets ; wax-y edge to plate. (Diam. 10^ in.) 

Lent by Dr. Payne. 

28 Basic, of almost eggshell quality, and with delicate decoration of 

chrysanthemum, bamboo, etc., with butterflies and other 
insects. (H. ih in-) Lent by Mr. Louis Hnth. 

* The Pa-kwa were symbols of ancient Chinese philosophy. When enth-e, they 
were the eight combiniitions of the Trigrams, of which the unbroken line typitied 
the male and the broken line the female. They also symbolised the four points of 
the compass and the four half-points. 

Fig. 26. — luxg-ch'ing blue and white, 
with imperial dragons and 





29 Wide Flat Bowl on three legs, with six £ong-hoa birds arranged 

in a formal shape round the outside amidst symbolic clouds. 
Leaf mark on glazed white centre to rough base. (H. 4^ in.) 

Lent by Lord Battersea. 

30 A globular Vessel, with neck, cover, spout, and handle. Pure 

white, with circular formal pseonies on body, lotus round the 
neck, chrysanthemum on cover. Some little gilding added in 
places. Lent by Mr. J. P. Heseliine. 

31 Saucer, in shape of the lotus flower. "With decussated edges 

and impi'essed divisions. A Thibetan symbol in centre and 
round outside of rim, alternating with the Sesamum flower. 
(Diam. 7i in.) 

Ma7'l : Wan-leili, 1573-1620. 

This pattern is said to have been reproduced in Japan 
for dessert services for Europe. 

Lent by Colonel Goff. 

32 Deep Basin, with chiysanthemum and various other flowers, 

lizards, insects, and bamboo, very delicately drawn in pale 

Mark : Seuen-tih, 1426-1436. 

Lent by Mr. Louis Huth. 

33 A Pair of Saucer Dishes. Decoration, seven egrets in centre 

intermixed with lotus, and surrounded with a ring of egrets 
and lotus alternately. Symbols of longevity and fruitfulness. 
(Diam. 10| in.) 

Mark : A double ring. 

Lent by Mr. W. G. RawUnaon. 

34 *An Elizabethan Ewer, formed of a bottle of Chinese porcelain, 
with birds and flowers. Mounted with silver-gilt base, six 
bands formed as wreaths, with cherubs' heads in relief, with 
band round neck, with lip and lid surmounted with three 
dolphins, and a handle for-med or a mermaid, with double- 
twisted tail, all in silver gilt. (H. 13 in.) 


35 *CirCUlar Dish, of porcelain, with figures and buildings, and 

border of lotus flowers, formally arranged round edge. 
Mounted with rim and base connected by four bands as 
arabesque figures, all in silver gilt. (Diam. 14^ in.) 
Mark : Double ring. 

36 *A Basin, with fong-hoa bird inside, and the same with chrysan- 

themum pattern outside. Mounted in silver gilt in same 
style, with mermaid handles. (H. 4 in.) 
Mark: Wan-leih, 1573-1620. 

37 *A larger Bowl, inside with the hare in centre, and divided 

into ten compartments with various flowers, and outside with 
ten di\dsions, with a stag in each, on deep blue background. 
Mounted in silver gUt in same style, with mermaid handles. 
(H. 6 in.) Lent by Mr. William Agnew. 

38 Pair of Globular Jars, with flat porcelain covers, with prunus 

branches in outline on one, and bamboo and flowers on the 
other ; both mounted as tankards in silver gilt. (H. 7 in.) 

Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

38a Similar shaped Jar, with Elizabethan mounts and handles 
silver gilt. On the jar, a man holding two horses, and a 
landscape decoration in rich blue. (H. 7| in.) 

Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

39 Large Dish, richly decorated with pseony leaves and flowers in 

indigo blue, with a similar decoration on underneath part of 
edge. (Diam. 20 in.) 

This is one of the pieces believed to have been made as 
a Commission from the Mohammedans in India, and partly 
copied from their metal dishes, and, like them, often placed 
on the fire for cooking purposes, as the bottom of this and 
other pieces testify. Lent by Mrs. Halsey. 

* The above four pieces are from the Burghley House collection, and are 
believed to have been in the possession of the Cecil famUy from the time of 
Queen Elizabeth. 


Vase of late K'ang-hsi (1662-1722) date, with a decoration 
executed in boldest relief and painted with the deep 
brilliant enamel colours of the period. The motive of the 
decoration is the " Eight Taoist Genii worshipping the God 
of Longevity " — Pa Hsien Ching Shou. The deity is re- 
presented riding in the clouds upon a stork, and the eight 
genii, each one distinguished by his peculiar attribute, are 
gathered in a group on a rocky shore, about to launch 
themselves on the waves of the sea which leads to the 
land of the immortals. The background is covered with 
pines worked in the same bold relief. The shoulder, neck, 
and foot of the vase are ornamented with bands of floral 
scrolls and rings of rectangular fret, pencilled in black and 
filled in with gold, the delicate finish of which makes an 
effective contrast to the strong relief and broader colour- 
ing of the picture on the body of the vase. (H. 18 in.) 
(/halting Collection, No, 117.) 





40 A lOiTge wide Vase, which is said to have been sent by Shen- 

Tsung (known better as Wan-leih, the Emperor of China 
from 1573 to 1620) to Jehangir, the Mogul Emperor, who 
kept it in his palace at Agra until that was sacked by the 
Mahrattas, in 1771, when it was transferred to the house of 
the family at Agra, from whom the present owner purchased 
it. Lent by Mrs. Halsey. 

41 A Dish, similar in size and character to No. 39, but a more 

brilliant blue, and with figures in centre and four panels 
with figures round rim, with alternate panels with flowers, 
principally the lotus, used in a very conventional form. 

Lent by Mrs. Halsey. 

42 A narrow Oviform Vase, with bold decoration of five-clawed 

dragon and a background of conventionalised lotus ; above 
and below bold linear decorations. (H. 22 in.) 

Mark (round mouth) : Wan-leih, 1573-1620, in one line 

Lent by Mr. H. V. Tebbs. 

43 Long-necked Bottle, the body decorated with fishes swimming 

amid various water plants; bold sprays up neck. (H. 23 in.) 
Mark (round top of neck) : Wan-leih, 1573-1620, in one 

Lent by Mr. Wickham Flower. 

44 A narrow Oviform Vase with small mouth, with bold four- 

clawed dragon, and above and below bold linear decorations, 
ending with a conventional blossom very similar to those on 
No. 38. (H. 23 in.) 

Mark (round shoulder) : Wan-leih, 1573-1620, in one 

Lent by Dr. Payne. 

45 Saucer-shaped Dish. Decoration, three white horses on blue 

ground representing clouds, with prunus blossom scattered. 
Same round back of rim. (Diam. 13 in.) 

Lent by Mrs. Halsey. 


46 Saucer Dish. In centre a pine with bamboo and prunus, and a 

full moon, and after an interval a border of chrysanthemum, 
bamboo, prunus, etc., with squirrels, birds, a deer, and hare. 
(Diara. 13| in.) Lent by Mrs. Halsey. 

47 Some fragments from the Palace of Bijapur, India, destroyed 

in 1689, some of which are identical in style with many of 
the vases, etc., in this case, and so indirectly confirming the 
date claimed for them. 

48 Fragments from the Mounds at Fostat and elsewhere near 

Cairo, Egypt, showing the intercourse between China and 
Egypt from early times. 

Both lent hy Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B. 

49 Deep Dish. Slightly flanged. With panels round rim, with 

symbols of magistrates alternating with pomegranates and 
lotus ; in centre, a landscape with geese, etc. (Diam. 20 in.) 

Lent by Mr. J. Annan Bryce. 

50 Two Saucer Dishes, representing a Kylin, which covers the 

whole dish without any border. (Diam. 14^ in.) 

Mark (inside double ring) : YHh tang kea ke. " Excellent 
vessel made at the Hall of Gems." 

Lent by Mr. R. Mills. 

51 Similar Dish to No. 49, with geese in centre. (Diam. 14 in.) 

Lent by Mr. J. Annan Bryce. 

52 Similar Dish to last, only with Kylin in centre instead of geese. 

Lent by Dr. Payne. 

Ch'ingr Blue and \Vhite. 

When we turn from the Ming " blue and white " to that of the 
present Dynasty, we pass from the river to the sea. With the 
exception of the fine old " Mohammedan " blue, there is no tint 
of cobalt blue which cannot be found in Ch'ing porcelain, and all 
the finest are to be found on pieces of K'ang-hsi. For the 




purely aesthetic collector, " blue and white " may be said to begin 
and end with K'ang-hsi, for the choicest Ming is practically non- 
existent, and both paste and colour deteriorated after the end of 
K'ang-hsi's reign. This simplifies matters considerably to the 
aesthetic collector, who has really no concern with date marks 
as evidence of age, and it is almost inconceivable why so many 
should worry themselves about these marks, as they are found 
on pieces of every quality, and are therefore no guarantee of 
either beauty or value. Strangely enough, while all the date 
marks of the celebrated Ming periods, especially that of Ch'eng- 
hua, are to be found on K'ang-hsi porcelain, that of K'ang-hsi 
itself is very rare, as during a portion of this Emperor's reign 
date marks on porcelain were forbidden by the governor of 
Ching-te-chen, as well as texts from sacred and classical authors. 
This was after the rebuilding of the factories. The reason for 
this restriction was the fear that broken pieces of pottery bearing 
the sacred name might be trampled on and profaned. - How 
long the prohibition lasted is not recorded, but at all events it 
was long enough to make the absence of a date mark a sign of 
the period, or rather the presence of the double blue ring within 
which date marks are usually inscribed, without any date mark 
inside it. A great number of other marks were used instead, 
such as the leaf mark, which is said to have been one of those 
introduced in this reign. The reign of K'ang-hsi (1662-1722) 
was the first in which a great trade in porcelain was carried on 
between China and Europe, mostly in Dutch ships. For a long 
time Holland had practically a monopoly of the trade with 
China, and with Japan also, who expelled the Portuguese in 1641. 
The British East India Company, though it was established in 
1599, did not trade directly with China and Japan for long 
after. Whatever may have been the character of the first 
consignments of porcelain, there is no doubt that they were 
soon made to order of the Dutch merchants, and were modified 
to suit the taste of the European market. In course of time 
there was a demand for useful porcelain for tea services and 


dinner services with fiat tims to the plates for mustard and salt, 
cups with handles, sauce boats, milk jugs, and vegetable dishes, 
articles unknoA\Ti to the Chinese. Enormous quantities of this 
kitchen ware were imported during the eighteenth century, and 
a great deal of it still exists. It was imitated all over Europe 
in porcelain and pottery. It is from this class of china that 
the celebrated " wiUow pattern plate " was derived, and a 
pattern even more widely spread, now known as the " Danish " 
pattern, from its comparatively recent revival in Copenhagen ; 
it is also known as the " onion " pattern in the trade. Later, 
European families had services made in China with their 
armorial bearings painted upon them and decorated in China 
with European flower sprigs and other patterns, a class generally 
known by the name of Lowestoft china. No doubt a great 
deal of Chinese porcelain was imported undecorated, and 
painted at Lowestoft as well as many other places in England 
and the Continent, but by far the greater part of the so-caUed 
Lowestoft china was both made and decorated in China. Most 
of this is polychrome, so that perhaps we are straying from the 
straight path of " blue and white." Here it will suflfice to say 
that this great body of kitchen and tea ware, made more or less 
to suit the European trade in useful china, is a class apart and 
generally considered as altogether below the notice of the 
collector or connoisseur. Most of it is, indeed, very inferior in 
both colour and paste, but it varies very much, and the best is 
not to be despised even for decorative purposes by short purses. 
There were, for instance, some large plates in the collection of 
the late Dante Gabriel Rossetti, well painted with an elegant 
fan pattern, and of beautiful paste and colour, which were 
evidently part of a dinner service ; and I have seen pieces in such 
unmistakably European forms as vegetable dishes of fine quality 
both as to the "blue" and the "white." But if we wish to 
separate what is distinctive!}' Chinese in taste from other " blue 
and white " (and this remark apphes equally to other classes of 
Oriental porcelain) we shall have a more difficult task, for a 


great deal of the most beautiful blue and white, though not 
European in shape or decoration, does not represent the cream 
of native Chinese taste. The vases decorated with graceful 
female figures (the " Lange Eleizen " of the Dutch and the " Long 
Elizas" of the English trade) are not, I understand, great 
favourites with the Chinese, and plates of the so-called " aster " 
pattern are rarely to be seen in China. In colour also the 
Oriental is said to prefer not the most brilliant blue, but one of 
a grey silvery tint. But unless a collector chooses to go and 
live for a long while in China (and perhaps even if he does), he 
will not be able to choose in strict regard to native Chinese 
taste. Moreover, if he did so he would not really please his 
own, for the Chinese collector has much more of the feeling of 
the antiquarian than of the artist, and his preferences are formed 
by many subtle forces which can never have any really vital 
effect upon the European. So the British collector had better 
follow his own British taste, and collect frankly those pieces 
which appear most beautiful to his British eyes. It would seem 
that, so far as "blue and white" is concerned, those eyes are 
sensitive enough, for if we except Holland and America there 
is no country in which its beauty is so much appreciated as 
our own. 

It is not given to everyone to be a good judge of " blue and 
white." Even when the colour sense is acute and true, a certain 
amount of practice is necessary for the eye to distinguish the 
different qualities of the great variety of tints to be found on 
this class of china. The colouring matter is in all cases the 
same, namely cobalt, and yet its varieties are innumerable. 
It is found in manganese ore in association with other metals, 
from which it is difficult to separate it entirely. A reddish 
tinge shows the presence of manganese, a blackish that of iron 
or nickel. Even the purest cobalt differed in tint at different 
periods in China — the Yung-lo from the Hsiian-te, the Hsiian-te 
from the Chia-ching, all three from the K'ang-hsi, and the 
K'ang-hsi from the Ch'ien-lung. The Chinese blue has been 


imitated in eveiy factory in Europe, the same mineral cobalt 
being used, and yet the " blue and white " of each of these 
factories can be distinguished at once by a practised eye, not 
only from Chinese " blue and white," but from the product of 
any other European factory. To take English china only, 
Bristol, Worcester, Derby, Salopian, and the rest of them, each 
in trying to imitate Chinese produced a special blue of its own 
from the same material. The nearest imitation of Chinese 
"blue and white" produced in Europe was not porcelain but 
pottery. Some fine pieces of Delft are almost deceptive. The 
slightly yellowish tinge of the stanniferous enamel on which the 
blue is painted will generally betray it at first glance, but 
even this is sometimes concealed by a blue tinge on the glaze. 
Even in the finest classes of K'ang-hsi " blue and white " the 
variety of tints is great. Let us try to distinguish a few of them. 
In the first place it may be observed that they are in some 
degree associated with patterns. There is a very distinct and 
interesting class of " blue and white " which may be called 
" ogre china." It is evidently founded on old bronze vessels both 
as to shape and decoration, the forms are generally bold in 
curve, some are almost globular, and the painted ornaments are 
closely compacted of arabesques (white upon blue). The bottles 
frequently have long swelling necks curved inward at the 
top — "garUc shaped," they are sometimes called. The orna- 
ments make strong masses of colour, and look as though 
they had been cut out and applied to the surface, a consider- 
able portion of which is quite undecorated. Striking charac- 
teristics of this class are the ogre's eyes set in the midst of 
conventional ornament and of ogre faces tao-tieh copied from 
sacrificial vessels of bronze. 

Pair of Treble Gourd Bottles, with long necks. On the two lower 

gourds leaf-shaped panels with arabesque designs, ornamental 
bands, and the sacred eye ; on a blue ground. On the upper 
gourd four panels, with an inscription connected by fillets of 


Beaher-shapecl Vase of the K'ang-lisi period, painted in blue with 
magnolias {Magnolia yiilan). The magnolia trees spring 
from open-work rockeries on the body and shoulder of the 
vase, and the white tiowers are modelled in slight rehef, 
so as to stand out more prominently from the shaded 
background of intense vibrating blue in which they are 
enveloped. Two pairs of swallows flying across, behind, 
in the intervals of the floral decoration, suggest also the 
return of spring, of which the magnolia, flowering, as it 
does, magnificently, before the appearance of its leaves, 
is a common floral emblem. (H. 19 in.) {Salting Col- 
lection, No. 371.) 


diaper; on the neck, upright blue leaves with arabesque 
ornament. (H. 9| in.) 

(Thompson Collection, No. 219.)* 

These pieces are always painted with a very strong bright 
blue, easily recognisable. The famous " hawthorn " ginger jars, 
as they are called (when of the largest and finest type), are 
remarkable for the depth and richness of their " blue," which 
is seldom if ever found on other pieces. The pattern, indeed, 
is found on pieces of every description and in all tints, from 
silver grey to almost black, and from the lightest to the deepest 
blue, but these special " ginger jars " are of the clearest and 
fullest azure. The finest are seldom marked, and belong to 
the periods K'ang-hsi and Yung-cheng. Such jars, full of 
fragrant tea or preserved fruits, are sent by the Chinese 
as New Year presents. The decoration consists of branches, 
sprays, or bunches of white wild plum blossom on a blue 
ground, and this blue ground is wavy and reticulated, the 
unevenly laid colour being broken up by straight, darker 
lines, like cracks in blue ice. This, we are told, is what the 
pattern is intended to suggest. In China, or in many parts 
of it, the frozen streams are actually covered with fallen prunus 
blossom at the beginning of the year. The prunus, like its 
fellow the "blackthorn" in England, is the first tree to 
blossom, and the flowers appear before the leaves. The plum 
bloom and the cracking ice are both emblems of the New 
Year, which begins in China some weeks later than with 
us. The intensity and clearness of the blue are enhanced by 
these darker lines and the mottling. You seem to be able to 
look below the surface as into water or precious stones. In the 

* The Thompson collection has been dispersed, and many of the best specimens 
are now in the possession of Mr. Salting. The description of the pieces refeiTed to 
in the text is taken from the sumptuous ' ' Catalogue of Blue and White Nankin 
Porcelain illustrated by the Autotype Process from drawings by James "Whistler, 
Esq., and Sir Henry Thompson," which was published by Ellis and White in 1878. 
Only 220 copies were printed, and it is already a rare book. — S. W. B. 


later imitations of this wonderful blue the colour has a violet 
tinge, due no doubt to imperfect separation of the cobalt from 
the manganese. One of the " points " of the best of the 
" hawthorn jars " of the K'ang-hsi period is that the lip is 
unglazed on the outer and only partially glazed on the inner 
side. They have generally a castellated border pencilled in 
blue round the neck. 

Pair of Oviform Ginger Jars, with bell-shaped covers. Hawthorn 
stem and blossom on a wavy ground of transparent blue 
of remarkably brilliant colour, with covers similarly 
ornamented; round the upper edge a band of castellated 
ornament ; the hawthorn stem spx'ings direct from the top 
and bottom of the jar. (H. 10^ in.) 

A distinguishing mark of these jars is that the top edge 
is partially glazed ; this peculiarity is often seen on the 
finest specimens. {Thovipson Collection, No. 282.) 

Another blue of great power, but neither so liquid or soft, is 
used for vignetting sprays of hawthorn, magnolia, and other 
flowers. On these pieces the petals are generally drawn with 
great care and precision, and often slightly modelled in " slip." 

Beaker. Prunus branches, in relief, in white, on vignetted deep blue 
ground, with birds. (H. 19 in.) 

Mark : Double ring. Lent by Mr. Louis Huth. 

{B.F.A.C., 1895, A^o. 118.) 

Beaker.* Same height and character, with magnolia blossoms and 
branches instead of prunus, also in relief. 

Mark : Double ring. Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

{Ditto, No. 119.) 

The blue used for the larger and bolder floral designs (lotus, 
chrysanthemum, pseony) is generally of a greyer kind, something 
like indigo, and, especially in what is kno^vn as the " aster " 
pattern, sometimes approaches black. All these blues are laid 
on with the brush, but the " powder," or " mazarin," or fouette 

* lUustrated in Plate XV. 


Tall Vase u'ith cover of the K'ang-hsi period, painted in brilliant 
blue and white, with formal figures of Chinese ladies, often 
called lange lysen. The body of the vase is spaced by a 
double pencilled line into foliated panels, which are filled 
alternately with the aforesaid damsels, usually holding 
flower sprigs, and with pots of flowermg plants mounted 
upon stands. The upper part is filled in with floral sprays, 
and bands of pseonies and cherr}?^ blossom cover the neck 
and cover. A brocaded band round the shoulder, and 
borders of rectangular fret encircling the lip of the vase 
and edge of the cover, complete the decoration. (H. 18 
in.) {Salting Collection, No. 1362.) 

W^f. ^"cf ^T*''^ 


blue is blown on through gauze. Whether a different quality 
of cobalt is used for this decoration or not, the efiect is quite 
different. It is perhaps the most brilliant, but not the most 
transparent, of all blues produced from cobalt upon porcelain. 
Whereas the finest of the other blues may be compared to a 
sapphire, the effect of this is more like lapis lazuli. It is generally 
used as a ground with reserve panels and lozenges, in which 
flowers, etc., are painted. It is most prized when the reserves 
are painted in pol3'chrome enamels. In these and, perhaps, 
other cases a special variety of blue may be associated with 
certain patterns or classes of porcelain, but in all classes the 
tints vary in strength, if not in quality, even on the same pieces. 
It seems from the earliest time that there were at least 
two blues, the pale and the dark, though perhaps the same 
colour more or less diluted ; and it is impossible to say when it 
became the practice to use both on the same piece for the sake 
of contrast and emphasis. Certainly during the later part of 
the Ming Dynasty at least two tints were used, one very dark 
and the other more lively, on the same piece, and in the time of 
K'ang-hsi and his successors it became the rule rather than 
the exception, and often more than two were used, especially 
in interiors with figures. Thus the hair would be dark, the 
drapery lighter, and the woodwork lighter still. But they seem 
sometimes to vary in quality also, as in those large plates with 
bold design of lotus mixed with iris. The lotus and its leaves and 
stems seem to be not only a deeper but a greyer blue than the 
iris and its leaves. But whatever varieties of colour there may be 
on the same piece they are always in harmony. In this respect 
Chinese " blue and white " is inimitable — it is never out of tune 
— paste, glaze, and colour all unite in one delightful harmony. In 
the introduction to the Burlington Fine Arts Catalogue of 1895 
I have remarked of the Avhite (that is, of the paste covered with 
glaze) that it is white, sometimes as curds, sometimes greyish, 
sometimes tinged with the faintest blue like the film inside a 
bird's egg. As the tinge, whatever it is, imparted by the glaze 


is always in accord with the blue, I suggested at the same time 
that it might come from the pigment with which the piece 
is painted, and that this is perhaps one advantage of the Chinese 
practice of baking the paste, the blue, and the glaze at the same 
bakmg. In all other countries, including Japan, the paste is 
always baked before it is painted and glazed, and therefore any 
tinge which the glaze may get from the pigment would not 
sink into the paste. This theory is partly sustained by what 
is called "soft paste" {see p. 41), the only kind of Chinese " blue 
and white " which has ever a j^ellowish or creamy tinge. In 
this kind the paste is baked before it is glazed. 

With regard to the blue, there is room for taste. It is not 
only the Chinese who prefer the silvery grey to the pronounced 
blue, especially in the " hawthorn " pattern ; while of the 
pronounced blue, others prefer the lighter to the deeper 
varieties. Most, however, Avill probably agree that the blue 
should be pure, transparent, and soft. A greater unanimity will 
be found with regard to the glaze. Its presence ought not to 
be felt. It should, it has been said, be as though the vase had 
just been withdrawn dripping from the purest water. The term 
" soft paste " is applied to a rare kind of Chinese " blue and 
white," not because the paste is softer but because it looks so. 
The effect comes not from the softness of the jDaste but the 
softness of the glaze, which is a lead glaze, and will not bear the 
same degree of heat as the petro-siliceous glaze used for ordinary 
kinds of hard porcelain. The " soft paste " is generally crackled 
and often painted with great care and elaboration. The blue is 
deep and soft, and seems to melt into the glaze rather than to 
be painted on something hard beneath it. Fabulous prices are 
said to be given in America for fine pieces, which are generally 
of small size. 

" Blue and white " may be divided into two classes as regards 
method of decoration — blue upon white and white upon blue. 
The former is the more common; the latter is employed in 
many patterns, as, for instance, the " hawthorn," Avhere the 

Fig. 28.— blue and white ginger 



petals are relieved against a blue ground. Often another change 
is rung. Within panels which tell as masses of blue upon the 
white body, there is decoration which tells as white upon the 
blue ; sometimes, also, a darker blue ornament is laid upon this 
decoration, which is practically blue upon blue. An instance of 
all these methods is a ginger jar near me as I write. On each 
side is a large panel tilled with a blue scaly ground on which 
two white naked boys are relieved, and over this scaly ground 
lotus flowers are painted in deep blue ; between the panels are 
lotus flowers simply painted in blue on the white body. Some- 
times the patterns are faintly engraved in the paste and tilled in 
with blue under the glaze. In some of the bottles so decorated 
the pattern appears more plainly when the bottle is tilled with 
water. When we come to consider the decoration of " blue and 
white," one is embarrassed by the profusion of design. It would 
need a book to analyse it thoroughly, but there are certain 
classes which may be specified. The largest class is probably 
the floral. Flowers have been the most constant inspirers of the 
Chinese artists from the beginning (at least the beginning of 
" blue and white ") , Mention has already been made of the 
so-called " hawthorn " pattern, the " aster " pattern, and other 
patterns in which the lotus, the p^eony, the chrysanthemum, and 
the rose are woven into bold and beautiful designs. Of all these 
the lotus is perhaps the most common. It may be generally 
known by its peculiar seed vessel (somethmg like that of a 
poppy), but there are several varieties of it, one of which is 
called the Indian lotus by the Chinese, and by the English 
dealer the " tiger lily," a flower which is not known in China. 
These and many more flowers often form the sole decoration 
of a piece. Sometimes, as in the case of the " hawthorn " jars 
or the vignetted sprays of magnolia, they are drawn very 
realistically ; but as a rule they are treated with more or less 
convention, and in later pieces it is often difiicult to recognise 
them, especially when the same leaves are used indiscriminately. 
Thus, in a weU-known pattern the centre of the plates is occupied 


by wild-fowl and water plants, and the border is composed of 

twenty-four little compartments, each of which holds a jQower. 

There are four flowers six times repeated. They are probably 

meant for the rose, the pseony, the chrysanthemum, and the 

pink ; but the last is the only one of the four which is clearly 

distinguishable, and the leaves are all alike. The many ways in 

which flowers are used in the decoration of "blue and white" 

is illustrated in the following descriptions, taken from the 

Burlington Fine Arts Catalogue of 1895. We begin with the 

aster pattern, which is generally of an indigo tone, and often 

coarse in painting, though there are pieces of fine pale blue and 

carefully drawn. It is rarely, if ever, found with date marks, 

and the character of the pieces is rather that of the Ming 

than the present Dynasty, and the taste rather Persian than 



92 Saucer Dish. Five aster blossoms in centre on dark ground, 
and sixteen asters and leaves radiating up the rim, sprays on 
outside. (D, 11 in.) Lent by Mr. Leiois Jarvis. 

94 Basin, Slightly wavy rim. Eighteen asters round the outside. 
(H. 4 in.) 

Mark : A lotus (?) flower inside double ring. 

Lent by Lord Battersea. 

96 Sucrier and Cover. Sixteen asters on cover, radiating 
from centre knob, and sixteen round the body of bowl. 
(H. 8| in.) Lent by Mr. C. S. Kennedy. 

98 Ginger Jar, with square cap cover. Six panels round shoulder. 
Band of pseony decoration round centre, fifteen asters round 
lower part. (H. 1 2 in.) Lent by Mr. R. Mills. 

Prunus OP " Hawthorn." 

{Descriptions of the celebrated ginger jars have been given already.) 

103 Small Beaker. Covered with branching prunus on deep blue. 
(H. ^ in.) 

Mark : Double ring. Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 




104 A Pair of Plates of same subject. A white interval between 

the centre of plate and the rim ; stems dark. (D. lOi in.) 
Mark: Seuen-tih, 1426-1436, but probably really of 
much later date. Lent by Mr. W. G. Rawlinson. 

105 A Cylindrical Cache Pot. Same decoration, the blue 

ground being vignetted off, and the prunus slightly in relief. 

(H. 7 in.) 

Mark : Double vmu.. 

Lent by Mr. W. G. Rawlinson. 


112 Basin. Slightly flanged. Dark border top and bottom with 

blossoms only, the rest being branches of prunus with dark 
stems. The ground beautifully graduated. (H. 7. in.) 

Mark: Ch'ing-hua, 1465-1488, but probably of much 
later date. Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

113 Pair of Beakers. Branching prunus on reticulated blue 

ground, with four round panels with longevity symbol in 

white. (H. 18 in.) 

Mark : Double ring. 

Lent by Mr. Willoughby London. 

114 Pair of Plates. Similar to No. 104, except that the stems 

are white. (D. 11 in.) 

Mark : The Shell (another Buddhist symbol). 

Lent by Mr. Louis Huth. 

117 Bottle. Covered with branching prunus, some blossoms of 
unusual size. A very rare and remarkable specimen of the 
pattern, the white blossoms occupying an unusually large 
portion of the surface, and the whole design drawn with 
great vigour and freedom. (H. 17 in.) 

Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

Lotus, Pseony, Chpysanthemum, ete. 

53 A Pair of Jars, with metal covers and necks and locks. 
The decoration is a conventional and picturesque use pi 
apparently the pseony leaves, combined with the blossom 
of the lotus. Brought from Granada, and probably of 


early Portuguese importation, used for keeping tea. (H. 
12 in.) Leoit by Mr. W. G. Rawlinson. 

55 A Saucer Dish. A large circular lotus in centre, surrounded 
by double ring and six lotus blossoms, partly in profile, 
round the edge, with the stems made into concentric 
patterns and pseony leaves introduced. (D. 14 in.) 
Mark: Leaf inside double rinu'. 

Lent hy Mrs. Halsey. 

59 Pair of Beakers. Decoration, white upon blue, principally 

pseony with lotus introduced in borders. (H. 12 in.) 

Mark : Double ring. Lent by Mr. 0. Salting. 

60 Pair of Cylindrical Jars with Flanged Necks. Band of 

ornamentation of lotus, white on blue, with sacred stone 
(one of the Buddhist symbols) and formal pattei'n round 
neck. (H. 8 in.) Lent by Lord Battersea. 

62 Pair of Oval Vases, flanged necks, unglazed handles. Decora- 

tion, blue on white, in four panels, prunus, preony, lotus, 
and chrysanthemum on the four sides, symbolical of the 
four seasons. (H. 9 in.) 

Lent by Mr. J. Annan Bryce. 

63 Deep Dish. Decoration, preony, with two fong-hoa birds. 

The rim divided into eight oblique panels, with pine and 
peeony alternately. Monkeys in the trees. (D. 15| in.) 
Mark : Leaf inside double ring. 

Lent by Mr. Willoughby Loudon. 

64 Pair of Long-necked Bottles. Conventional decoration of 

lotus and sprays, (H. 15 in.) 

Mark : Seuentih, 1426-1436, but probably of a later 
date. Lent by Sir H. Thompson. 

65 Saucer Dish. Five large lotus flowers, with the pseony leaf 

and four lotus buds. Three lotus plants on back. (D. 
15 in.) 

Mark : The Sounding stone. 

Le7it by Mr. W. C. Alexander. 

Fk;. 31.— blue and white " piaav 
thokn bottlk." 





70 Saucer Dish. Five lotus flowers, in half profile, with their 
leaves and buds, with long pointed leaves introduced, like 
the sagittaria leaf. (D. 14 in.) 

Lent by Mr. W. G. Rawlinson. 

75 Dish. Rich paeony decoration in centre and on rim, white 
upon blue, with intermediate band of white, decoi'ated 
with six sprays of chrysanthemum in blue. Long sprays 
on back. (D. 18| in.) 

Mark : Leaf in double ring. 

Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

78 Pair of Beakers. Pseony decoration closely covering the 

whole surface in rich blue. (H. 20 in.) 

Mark : Double ring. Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

79 Saucer Dish. Lai-ge lotus in centre and three surrounding 

it, with iris flowers in paler blue, leaves, and conventional 
decoration. (D. 15 in.) 

Mark : Leaf in double ring. 

Lent by Mr. Cosmo Monkhousc 

85 Saucer Dish. Circular centre of lotus flower, surrounded by 
six leaf-shaped panels, with pseony, lotus, etc. (D. 18| in.) 

Mark : Two fish inside double ring. Another Buddhist 
symbol ; representing conjugal fidelity, being the " Yu " 
fish, a sort of perch, said always to go about in paix's. 

Lent by Lord Battersea. 

89 Pair of Dishes. Bold pseony decoration in centre, and lotus 

round the border. (D. 15| in.) 
Mark : The Sounding stone. 

Lent by Mr. fF. C. Alexander. 

90 Large Bowl. Pseony inside and out. (H. 6|^ in.) 

Lent by Mr. W. C. Alexander. 

Two Saucer-shaped Dishes. Sharply drawn flowers and leaves 
painted in white enamel, which form a raised pattern on 
a ground of bright powder blue. The under part, as far 


as the foot, similar in colour and design; the centre panel 
surrounded by a white line ; on the inner edge two similar 
lines. (D. 13 in.) 

Mark: Double ring and figure 15. 

{Thompson Collection, No. 113.) 

The above descriptions give a good many of the most 
important flower patterns to be found on the finest blue, but 
of course the Ust is nothing Hke exhaustive. The same flowers 
are used over and over again, singly and in combination, in 
pots, baskets, etc., and many others, like the peach, the rose, 
the orchid, as well. They are used in panels, often alternating 
with panels of figures, especially of graceful ladies, and are 
the motives of a thousand diapers and borders. Rarely they 
are drawn growing as in nature in masses, with grasses and 
with insects, butterflies, dragon flies, etc., flying about and 
settling on them. An exquisite example of this is a jar 
belonging to Mr. G. Salting (No. 183 in the Burhngton Fine 
Arts Club Catalogue of 1895). This piece, however, belongs 
more properly to the next class, " Landscapes, with Birds and 
other Animals," the " landscape " generally consisting of a 
decorative foreground composed only of highly conventionalised 
rocks, with trees and plants. 

Landscapes, with Birds and other Animals. 

82 Pair of Beakers, with figures in one, the whole surface delicately 

crackled. Some Buddhist subject on one, and deer and 

cranes on the other. (H. 18 in.) 

Lent by Lord Battersea. 

{G.B.F.A.C., 1895.) 

83 Jar and Cover. Richly decorated with spotted deer and 
storks, with pine trees and landscape. (H. 17 in.) 

Mark : Double ring. Lent by Mr. C. S. Kennedy. 





Fig. 32.— medallioks on a green 
groitnd strewn with a 
"hundred flowers." 


86 Dish. Grapes, with squirrels plundering them, in centre and 
round the rim. (D. 16 in.) 

Mark : Sounding stone inside double ring. 

Lent by Mr. Willoiighhy Loudon. 
/ {C.B.F.A.C, 1895.) 

Two Saucer Dishes, the sides divided into nine lobes. Chinese 
porcelain, painted in blue ; in the centre a grasshopper, 
rocks, and flowers ; on each lobe rocks and plants ; on the 
outside nine flower sprigs ; brown edges. (D. 9 in.) 

(Franks Collection, No. 176.) 

Vase. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue ; a pheasant on a rock 
from which springs a flowering plant ; in the sky two birds, 
narrow borders above. (H. 9 in.) 

Mark of the period Ch'ing-hua, 1465-1488 (3.3). 

(Franks Collection, No. 106.) 

Vase. Chinese porcelain, painted in dark blue ; two tigers in a land- 
scape ; at the back a bamboo plant growing out of a rock. 
(3. 17 in.) (Franks Collection, No. 121.) 

Small Plate. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue ; in the centre a 
landscape with two deer,* a grotesque monkey climbing a 
tree and holding a stick, with which it is apparently striking 
a bees' nest ; border of hexagons, interrupted by four 
medallions enclosing fruit. (D. 5^ in.) 

Mark of the period Ch'ing-hua, 1465-1488. 

(Franks Collection, No. 242c/.) 

Oup. Thin Chinese porcelain, painted in blue ; water plants and 
ducks. (D. 2^ in.) 

Mark .• Wan yuh. " Rare jade." 

(Franks Collection, No. 261.) 

Two Saucers. Chinese porcelain, of a dead white, painted in blue ; 
two quails and a flowering tree ; indented edge gilt. 
(D. 4^ in.) (Franks Collection, No. 277.) 

* Which are being stung by the bees. 


Four Plates in the form of a lotus leaf. In the centre a leopard ; 
the scalloped edge formed by nine hollow compartments, 
three of which contain tigers : the intervening six panels 
with flowering shrubs. (D. 8| in.) 

Mark : A flower and a double ring. 

(Thompson Collection, No. 46.) 


Fish, especially the carp and salmon (very like carp), 
furnished the Chinese with many subjects for decorating 
porcelain, but they are not often to be found on "blue and 
white " except in association with a fable {see "Animals, Fabulous 
or Connected with Fables "). There are, however, some " blue 
and white " pieces ornamented with fish treated decoratively or 
realistically. Amongst the latter is a not very uncommon 
pattern of crabs, eels, and other marine creatures, with seaweed, 
etc., as if representing the floor of the sea. 

Globular-shaped Bottle with long neck; on the body a salmon 
leaping from rough waves striking against a rock ; at the 
side of the fish a flower ; above a band of castellated 
ornament ; round the neck a band of involuted ornament 
on blue ground, the neck ornamented with stiff leaves. 
(H. 10 in.) (Thompson Collection, No. 249.) 

126 Deep Dish, flanged brim, with wavy edge, with fishes drawn 
in every variety of attitude among water plants, etc. 
(D. lOf in.) Lent hy Mr. G. H. Boughton, A.R.A. 

(C.B.F.A.C, 1895.) 

161 Pair of Deep Dishes. Flanged and wavy edges. Decorated 
with fishes drawn with great spirit on rims and at bottom 
of dish, with a crab forming the centiT. (D. 1 5 in.) 

Lent hy Mr. Wickham Flov)er. 

Two Plates. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue ; in the centre a fish 
in a stormy sea, with clouds above ; on the border the seal 


Tall Vase of the K'ang-lisi period (1662-1722), painted with the 
rich brilliant enamel colours of the famiille verte. The 
decoration consists of panels of varied shape and size, 
posed upon a green stippled gTound brocaded with flowers 
and butterflies. The panels are filled with landscapes, 
lions with embroidered balls and other monsters, fish and 
water plants, and with the typical flowers of the four 
seasons — the pseony of spring, the lotus of summer, the 
chrysanthemum of autumn, and the prunus, emblem of 
winter. (H. 30 in.) {Salting Collection, Xo. 1182 ) 




character, Ftih, " Happiness," eight times repeated ; on the 
back eight symbols. (D. 6| in.) 

Mark of the period Ch'ing-hua, 1465-1488. 

{Franks Collection, No. 243.) 

Plate. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue ; in the centre a medallion 
enclosing three fishes twisted together, around which is a 
running scroll ; border of flowers. (D. 8|^ in.) 

(Franks Collection, No. 790.) 

Next to flowers probably in order of antiquity is the 
decoration with fabulous animals, especially dragons, which 
have given the name of dragon china to a class of porcelain 
exclusively decorated with these monsters. The phoenix, or 
fotig-hoa, is almost as common as the dragon, and much more 
so than the kylin. Another very familiar figure on " blue and 
white " pieces (often modelled as a handle to a vase cover) is the 
strange creature sometimes called the dog Fo, sometimes the 
Corean Hon, and often, at least in Europe, a kylin {see p. 51). 
The best authorities call it a lion, but it is generally more like a 
Chinese dog than any other known animal. One scarcely 
knows whether to treat it among the real or the fabulous 
animals, but artistically it seems to be more nearly allied to the 
latter. Artistically also, not only on account of their super- 
natural character but their grotesque appearance, may be 
associated the figures of certain sacred personages which are 
often seen upon pieces of " blue and white," especially the eight 
Taoist immortals. Certain natural animals also associated with 
fables form favourite subjects for decorating " blue and white," 
as the salmon (so often represented fighting with a dragon) 
and the horses of King Muh-Wang. Let us first give some 
description of pieces decorated with animals connected with 
fables, and then proceed to the fabulous animals and the 
sacred personages. 


Animals connected with Fables. 

128 Ginger Jar and Cover. Decorated with the eight horses of 
King Muh-Wang, the fifth monarch of the Chow Dynasty, 
who ascended the throne 1001 B.C., and died 947 B.C. He 
travelled much, and cariied on many wars successfully on 
the north-western frontier of Ohina. He boasted that 
he had been driven " wherever wheel-ruts ran and hoofs 
of horses had trodden." After one of these expeditions, he 
pensioned his coachman, Tsao-Fu, and turned out the eight 
horses for the rest of their lives. (H. 11 in.) 

Lent by Lord Battersea. 
(B.F.A.C, 1895.) 

139 Plate. Sea serpent fighting with salmon, very deep blue 
(D. 8^ in.) 

Mark : Square seal inside double ring. 

Lent by Mr. W. G. Rawlinson. 

Fabulous Animals. 

131 Pair of Cylindrical Jars, flanged tops. Two bands of rich 

blue, one decorated with dragons and sacred fungus, the 
other lower one with lotus and waves in white, the rest of 
the jar white with decorations in blue. Long leaves up the 
neck. (H. 11 in.) 

Mark : Double ring. Lent by Mr. Wickham Flower. 

{B.F.A.C, 1895.) 

132 Pair of Long-necked Bottles. Serpents, clouds, and flowers, 

long leaves up neck. (H. 10 in.) 

Mark : A flower. Lent by Mr. W. H. Cope. 


133 Basin, flanged top. Inside, a leaping salmon. Outside, white 

dragons and clouds, on deep blue ground. (H. 4 in.) 
Mark: Ch'ing-hua, 1465-1488. 

Lent by Mr. A. T. H oiling sworth. 


Vase of the K'ang-hsi period, painted entirely in the soft coral 
red of the muiSle stove derived from iron peroxide, the 
colour which is well shown as a monochrome in Plate 
XXIV, The decoration consists of a band of five 
imperial five-clawed dragons, enveloped in flames, rising 
from the crested waves of a rocky sea. Grasped in the 
right forepavr of each dragon is displayed the circular 
form of the character shou (longevit}'). The neck is 
encircled by a dotted ring and the lip by a scrolled border 
of ju-i design. (H. 10 in.) {Saltiiig Collection, No. 1083.) 


135 Pair of Plates. Two conventionalised dragons in white, on 
deep rich blue. (D. 11 in.) 

Seal Mark : Pao (" Precious ") inside double ring. 

Lent hy Mr. W. G. Rawlinson. 
(B.F.A.C., 1895.) 

138 A Globular Vessel with Neck, Spout, and Handle, partly 

mounted with silver. Kylin on one side and fong-hoa on the 
other. (H. 11 in.) Leiit by Mr. J. Annan Bryce. 


140 Squat Vase. Two sea serpents with the magic ball, in deep 
blue on white. (H. 5| in.) 

Mark : Tai (" Great "). Lent by Dr. Hamilton. 


134 Pair of Plates. Kylin in centre, blue border. Buddhist 
symbols at back. (D. 8 in.) 

Mark : Longevity fungus inside double ring. 
Mark engraved at the Dresden Museum, shomng these 
plates were in their collection when formed about a.d. 1700. 

Lent by Mr. R. Mills. 

Saucer-shaped Dish. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue ; a phoenix 
standing before rocks and ilowers ; clouds on back of edges. 
(D. 12| in.) 

Mark of the period Seuen-tih, 1426-1436. 

(Franks Collection, No. 169.) 

Bowl. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue ; inside, a medallion with a 
four-clawed dragon among clouds ; border of swastika pattern ; 
outside, two four-clawed dragons with sacred pearls over the 
waves of the sea. (H. 6 in., d. 13^ in.) 

Mark : Schwei fuh kung yung, " For the public use of 
the general's hall." (Franks Collection, No. 758.) 

Saucer Dish. Chinese porcelain, painted m blue ; inside, a four- 
clawed dragon among clouds, continued over the edge to the 
outside. (D. 8 in.) 

Mark : Sei yuh, " Western jade." 


The best jade comes, to China from the countries to the west. 

{Franks Collection, No. 772.) 

Three Cups of various sizes, part of a nest. Chinese porcelain, 
painted in blue ; on each of them two four-clawed dragons 
among clouds with the sacred pearl. (D. of largest, 3 in.) 
Mark of the period Kea-tsing, 1522-1567 (2.2). 

{Franks Collection, No. 793.) 

Two Diminutive Saucers. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue ; 
inside, a four-clawed dragon ; outside, two phoenixes among 
clouds. (D. 2^ in.) 

Mark of the period K'ang-he, 1661-1722 (2.2.2). 

{Franks Collection, No. 805.) 

Pair of Cylindrical Jars. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue of 
various tints ; on the body a design in four bands, alternately 
stifiF arabesques in blue on a white ground, and patterns in 
white on a pale blue ground; of the latter, the upper one 
consists of two dragons holding up fanciful branches ; on the 
necks, stiff leaves. (H. 11 in.) 

{Franks Collection, No. 115.) 

Vase, bottle-shaped. Chinese porcelain, with the four-clawed dragon 
among clouds, faintly engraved in the paste, and filled in 
with blue. (H. 1\ in.) 

Mark of the period Ch'ing-hua, 1465-1488 (3.3). 

{Franks Collection, No. 132.) 

Bottle, six-sided. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue ; on each side a 
quatrefoil medallion enclosing a fabulous animal ; the re- 
mainder of the body ornamented with wicker pattern in 
white on a blue ground ; above and below, panels and borders 
with stiff ornaments. (H. 13 in.) 

Mark in the seal character, Fuh kwei kia ki (" Fine 
ware for riches and honoui's "). 

{Franks Collection, No. 133.) 

Cylindrical Jar, ornamented with four alternate white and blue 
bands of arabesque designs ; in the centre two dragons holding 


Fig. 33. — k'axg-h>vI vase, decorated 
with lions and bkocaded 



a symbol ; on the neck a band of ornament surmounted by 
upright leaves ; round the foot a similar band of ornament. 
(H. Ill in.) 

Mark: Double ring. {Thom2}son Collection, No. 4.) 

Large Cylindrical Vase, with hollow neck. On a ground of trans- 
parent wavy blue numerous dragons and medallions of 
flowers, forming a regular pattern intersected by boldly 
drawn leaA^es and flowers ; the hollow of the neck similarly 
ornamented in two divisions ; round the foot a broad band 
of ornament, key-pattern, with four medallions of flowers; 
round the neck similar bands and medallions. (H. 18 in.) 
Mark : Two rings. {Thompson Collection, No. 206.) 

Saueer Dish. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue ; a large Kylin 
and a plantain. (D. 14 in.) 

Mark, in a formal'character, Yuh-tang kea ke ("Beauti- 
ful vessel of the Jade Hall "). 

(Franks Collection, No. 769.) 

Mythical Pepsonages. 

The mythical personages painted on blue and white and other 
porcelain are not many : Buddha and his Arhats and the Goddess 
Kuan-yin are seldom found in such decoration. The eight 
Taoist Immortals and the God of Longevity are the most frequent, 
next the Taoist triad, Fu, Lu, and Shou, the star-gods of happi- 
ness, rank, and long life. 

76 Large Cylindrical Jar. The subject is Si Wang Mu, a 
fabulous being of female sex, dwelling on Mt. Kw'en-lun 
with troops of Genii, and at times holding intercourse with 
favoured Imperial votaries. King Mu Wang is believed to 
have been entertained by her at the Lake of Gems in the 
West. She is mentioned in the Books of Chow, which date 
some centuries before the Christian era. She bestowed the 
fruit of the peach, which conferred immortality, and she 
sometimes despatched certain birds to her favoured votaries. 
She is represented seated on the^fong-hoa. (H. 18 in.) 

Lent by Mr, G. Salting. 
{B.F.A.C, 1895.) 


236 Pair of Beakers. The body covered with formal diaper 
pattern, with eight panels, four on body and four on neck, 
two-and-two on the reverse sides, on each of which is one of 
the Eight Immortals — Pa-Sien. Though from the earliest 
antiquity they had been separately venerated, they were not 
till the thirteenth century associated together and venerated 
as the " Pa-Sien." They are Taoist divdnities. (H. 18 in.) 
Mark : Double ring. Lent hy Lord Battersea. 

(JB.F.A.C, 1895.) 

340 Cup, in nine compartments. The God of Longevity and the 
Eight Immortals round the outside ; inside, a stag. Soft 
paste, crackled inside and out. (H. l^ in.) 

Lent by Mr. B. Mills. 

249 Pair of Saucer Plates. Central subject, apparently a man 
(in one plate), and a woman (in the other), praying, and 
Kuan-yin appearing on the sky with a child in her arms, 
presumably the object of their petitions, Kuan-yin being the 
Goddess of Fruitfulness ; in each place, a man like a necro- 
mancer is attending the suppliant. Borders with eight 
panels, with Buddha and a lady suppliant, and lotus 
wreaths, an emblem of fruitfulness. (D. 11 in.) 

Lent by Mr. J. Annan Bryce. 

280 Powdered Blue Jar. Two oblong white panels, one with a 
sage, apparently Naga-radja, the Dragon King, bestriding a 
dragon, which bears him across the stormy waters, and hold- 
ing a salver, which, according to the legend, contains three 
sacred gems (see W. Anderson's " British Museum Cata- 
logue," p. 88). The other panel has a landscape with three 
geese, four other small panels containing a craw fish, a hare, 
and some ilowers. (H. 11| in.) Lent hy Lord Battersea. 


Basin. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue ; inside, a sage holding a 
peach ; outside, eight divinities, with the God of Longevity 
riding on a stork. (H. 2i\ in., diam. 6| in.) 

Mark: Lin-yuh tang chi. "Made at the Lin-yuh hall." 

(Franks Collection, No. 168a.) 







To this section what I have called ogre china may also be 
said to belong. Here is the description of another piece — 

253 Triple Bulb Bottle. Four pointed gadroons down half of 
bottom bulb, with masks of monster's head between ; the 
middle bulb entirely covered with similar decoration, and the 
small highest bulb the same, with pointed leaves up the neck ; 
white upon deep rich blue, and the white very pure, with 
brilliant glaze. The whole ornament apparently taken from 
old bronze vessels. (H. 17 in.) Lent by Mr. H. Mills. 

{jB.F.A.C, 1895.) 
Human Figures. 

These may be divided into " Ceremonial subjects," " Battle 
and Hunting scenes," " Domestic scenes (including the graceful 
female figures called Lange Lijsen by the Dutch and 'Long 
Elizas ' by the English trade), interiors, garden scenes," etc. 

Cepemonial Subjects. 

To this class belong the most stately of Chinese decorations. 
The pictures are probably copies or adaptations of designs by 
the most skilful pictorial artists. They are admirably composed 
with regard to the telling of the story, and the figures and other 
objects are distributed with great decorative skill over the 
surface. The landscape setting, in which boldly conventionalised 
pine trees and rocks often play an important part, is generally ot 
much dignity. 

231 Square Jar and Cover. On one side, numerous votaries 
bringing presents to some potentate, with the accompaniment 
of a flute and kettledrum ; on second side, mounted warrior 
with a banner on which is inscribed the Yang and Yin 
emblem of the male and female elements in nature ; on third 
side, the subject is similar to the first, and on the fourth 
also, except that the recipient of the presents seems to be a 
lady. (H. 13 in.) 

Mark : Leaf in recessed glazed square in bottom. 

Lent by Sir If. Thompson. 
(B.F.A.C, 1895.) 


Three Square Canisters, with square necks. Four subjects enclosed 
in ornamental panels. On one a mandarin seated in an inner 
court, surrounded by warriors and attendants, receiving offer- 
ings presented by three kneeling figures ; at an outer gate an 
attendant holding a horse. On a second panel, an interior 
with an emperor or person of rank, surrounded by five 
attendants, receiving an ofiiering from a kneeling figure ; in 
the foreground a ten-ace with five musicians. On another 
panel an empress or person of rank seated within a room, on 
either side two attendants carrying tall fans ; before her a 
female figure dancing on a carpet ; at an open window 
another female figure holding something in a cover ; in the fore- 
ground four female musicians. On the fourth panel three 
mounted, three unmounted warriors advancing with raised 
standards through the defiles of a rock. Round the neck 
panels of flowers ; on the cover a diaper ornament and a 
blue kylin. (H. 12| in.) 

Mark : Leaf and fillet in a sunk panel. 

The three vases are ornamented with similar subjects, but 

slightly different in detail. 

(Thompson Collection, No. 202.) 

A Large-shaped Bowl and Cover, with silver mounts. On the 

body two panels, one representing a male figure presenting 
petition to a person of rank, who holds a flower ; behind him 
a chair and table with embroidered cover, in front of which 
stands an attendant with a large, raised fan or banner, and 
another holding a scroll ; on either side warriors. On the 
other panel a man seated on a stool ; behind him an attendant 
conversing with an official, who is seated at a table on which 
are writing materials ; in front a man presenting offering ; 
the panels divided by symbolical ornaments. Round the 
neck a band of fret ornament surmounted by dots ; on the 
cover boys playing amongst the rocks ; round the edge a 
fret ornament, dots below. Painted in brilliant blue. 
(H. lOJin.) 

Mark : Double ring. (Thom^oson Collection, No. 29.) 

Pair of Oviform Vases. On one a procession of horse and foot 
soldiers, carrying bannei's, state umbrellas, and other badges 

O L) 

!THE NEW^"-"" '^ 



of office ; on the other a mandarin, attended by three 
warriors, addressing an official seated at a table writing, with 
two attendants behind him. On the neck bamboo branches. 
The covers, which are decorated with a conventional leaf 
pattern, are surmounted by small blue kylin lions. (H. 
11 in.) {Thompson Collection, J\^o. 6.) 

Pair of Tall Vases. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue; Chinese 
interiors, apparently state ceremonies ; on one of them the 
Emperor is represented, surrounded by the personages of his 
court, who are holding their sceptres before their faces ; 
round the neck two bands of ornament. (H. 17| in.) 
Mark of the period Ch'ing-hua, 1465-1488 (2.2.2). 

(Franks Collection, jYo. 103.) 

Tall Vase. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue; a Chinese interior, 
apparently an emperor and empress seated on thrones, with 
numerous attendants ; at the door are horses ; on the neck 
two branches of flowers. (H. 18| in.) 

Mark of the period Ch'ing-hua, 1465-1488 (3.3). 

(Franks Collection, A^o. 104.) 

Pair of Vases, with slightly bulging bodies and expanding necks. 
On one a band of six musicians, with female dancing on a 
carpet, in the presence of lady of rank seated at a table, Avith 
two attendants at her side ; round the neck bamboo leaves 
and ornamental band ; I'ound the foot a running leaf pattern. 
On the other vase, a mandarin, or person of rank, seated at 
a table in a pavilion surrounded by warriors and attendants, 
is addressing a sage who, standing in front of a table, is 
apparently inscribing upon a scroll the words addressed to 
him; without, a warrior carrying a standard attended by 
another bearing an offering ; round the neck, bamboo leaves 
and ornamental bands ; round the foot, running leaf pattern. 
(H. 10 in.) 

Mark : Ta Ming Chi'ny-hwa nien chi ; a.d. 1465-1468. 

(Thompson Collection, No. 74.) 


Battle and Hunting^ Scenes. 

These subjects are not very common on blue and white. 
The ordinary hunting scene is the pattern usually called the 
" Love Chase," of which more than one variety is described 
in the following extracts from catalogues : — 

201 Pair of Saucer- shaped Plates. Border of geometrically 

arranged lotus — in the centre the " Love Chase " : a lady 
and gentleman on horseback, with bow and arrow and 
leaden ball on a string, pursuing a hare. In one plate, 
the arrow just discharged, and in the other, transfixed, 
the hare ; in this plate the lady has a hawk on her wi'ist, 
while the gentleman shoots. In the first plate the lady 
has the bow and the gentleman the leaden ball. (D. 8 in.) 

Lent hy Lord Battersea. 
{B.F.A.C, 1895.) 

Two Cylindrical Pots. On the body two female figures hunting 
a hare (" Love Chase ") ; round the foot and neck an 
upright leaf pattern, with a narrow diaper band. (H. 
5 in.) {Thompson Collection, No. 121.) 

Two Saucer Dishes, with wa^'y edges, and borders moulded in 
sixteen flutes. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue ; in the 
centre Chinese subjects, an archer on horseback shooting 
a rabbit, and a lady on horseback, with a falcon on her 
wrist ; border of a stiff pattern, with eight symbols in 
the spaces ; on the outside a flower sprig on each plate. 
(D. 7| in.) 

Mark of the period Ch'ing-hua, 1465-1488. 

{Franks Collection, No. 180.) 

Vase. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue ; two figures on horse- 
back pursuing a hare. (H. 8 in.) 

Mark of the period Kea-tsing, 1522-1567 (3.3). 

{Franks Collection, No. 117.) 

Pair of deep Dishes. In the centre a combat between two 
mounted warriors, each attended by a lieutenant cari-ying 

Fig. 36.— maitreya buddha, thk 
buddhist messiah. 

Fig. 37.— t'ai-po tsun : a ^vpaxER's 



a standard ; round the inner edge eight medallions con- 
nected by blue arched pillars variously ornamented in 
white, representing a combat between a foot soldier and 
a mounted warrior ; on the reverse a band of detached 
flowers, and six large revoluted ornaments in divisions, 
(D. 12| in.) 

Mark : 6 and double ring, 

{^Thompson Collection, No. 201.) 

Two deep Dishes, with wavy edges, Chinese porcelain painted 
in blue ; in the centre a large medallion, with a Chinese 
warrior on horseback pursuing anothei', each attended by 
a standard bearer ; from this proceed six semicircular 
compartments, in each of which a warrior and standard 
bearer ; the spaces between are filled with chevron and 
key patterns ; outside six panels, enclosing a quatrefoil 
design, and beyond these four growing plants, (D. 13| in.) 
Mark of the period Ch'ing-hua, 1465-1488 (3.3). 

{Franks Collection, No. 193.) 

Domestic Scenes (Interiors, Garden Scenes, etc.). 

These form one of the largest and, to Europeans, perhaps 
the most delightful of all the classes of blue and white. They 
have a human mterest, but one so remote from our experience 
that they seem to give us peeps into some other world than 
ours, somewhere between the earth and fairy land — a land of 
strange rocks and trees and flowers, of white light and blue 
air, peopled mainly by graceful ladies and quaint children, 
passing charmed lives untouched by care. They also show 
the decorative skill of the Chinese at its highest, especially 
perhaps in the use of different tones of blue, in the adjust- 
ment of a complicated pictorial design to the exact shape of 
the thing decorated, and in suggesting the relative positions 
of things far and near without breaking the sense of an 
even surface. While, however, we rightly extol the supreme 
virtues of the Oriental decorator in these respects, we should 


remember that they are accompanied by a very imperfect 
perception of ^perspective, both linear and atmospheric. 

Beaker, with swelling centime. Chinese porcelain painted in blue ; 

three ranges of subjects. In the upper one a Chinese 

interior with figures writing, below this is a garden scene, 

and at the bottom figures with poultry. (H. IS in.) 

Mark : A leaf. 

(Franks Collection, No. 108.) 

Fair of Beakers, square. Chinese porcelain painted in blue ; in 

the centre is a quadrangular projection, on which are 

four panels representing Chinese interiors, with two figures 

in each ; they rest on an expanded foot painted with 

flowers growing out of rocks ; the upper portions also 

expand to a still greater width, each panel of which is 

ornamented with groAving plants, birds, and insects ; at 

the top and bottom borders of lozenge pattern. (H. 10^ in.) 

Mark : Two figures. 

[Franks Collection, No. 131.) 

Cylindrical Vase, for writing materials. Chinese porcelain painted 
in blue. A garden scene by moonlight ; six men seated 
at a table and two attendants ; a third of the outside is 
covered with a Chinese composition in six columns. (H. 
51 in.) 

Mark : Wan chang shun tow. " Scholarship lofty as 
the Hills and the Great Bear." 

(Franks Collection, No. 147.) 

Basin. Chinese porcelainl painted in blue ; inside a medallion 
with rock and trees — one of them the bamboo ; outside 
Chinese garden scene, viz. a lady coming out of a house, 
three other ladies, one with candle. (H. 3^ in., d. 7^ in.) 
Mark of the period Seuen-tih, 1426-1436 (3.3). 

(Franks Collection, No. 159.) 

Ginger Jar and Cover. Tall female figures (Lange Lijsen) and 
boys on a rocky landscape with palm tree ; round the 

Fig. 38. — theee-coloue decoeation 

sur biscuit. 

|THE new YORK 




cover detached branches of flowers and leaves ; on the 
top female figures. (H. 10^ in.) 
Mark : Double rings. 

{Thompson Collection, No. 193.) 

Large Saucer. Chinese porcelain painted in blue ; Chinese subject 
— viz. a landscape, with a gentleman riding and a lady 
in a wheel-chair, with her attendants; outside a lozenge 
border, interrupted by four panels, enclosing plants. (D. 
H in.) 

Mark : In the seal character, Jo shin chin tsang. 
"Deep like a treasury of gems." 

(Franks Collection, No. 188.) 

Beaker, with slightly swelling body. Chinese porcelain, painted in 
blue ; tliirty-two panels enclosing Chinese groups of figures, 
chiefly ladies and children, or flowers, placed alternately. 
(H. 20| in.) 

Mark : The leaf symbol. 

(Franks Collection, No. 111.) 

Two Plates. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue, with Chinese 
subjects ; in the centre a house with a lady and gentleman, 
two boys outside ; border of eight ladies in various attitudes ; 
outside, detached flowers ; underneath, flowers draAvn in 
outline forming a circular patch. (D. 10 in.) 

(Franks Collection, No. 207.) 

Three Double Gourd Vases, with open tops. On the lower gourd 
six panels with alternate subjects of female figures (Lange 
Lijsen) variously occupied, and landscapes ; below six similar 
patterns of figures separated by panels, vases, and flowers on 
a stand. Separating the top fx'om the bottom, a projecting 
ring. On the upper part six panels similarly ornamented, 
divided by flowers forming spandrils. Round the neck a 
deep ornamental band. (H. 14^ in.) 
Mark .■ Leaf and double ring. 

(Thonvpson Collection, No. 26.) 

Small Cup and Saucer, known in Holland as " the Cuckoo 
Cup," A miniature house between wa^y branches, and 



symmetrically arranged flowers and similar branches ; on 
either side a cuckoo, 

Mark: A shell. (Thompson Collection, No. 174.) 

Eight Saucer Dishes of fine quality, with wavy edges, and fourteen 
depressed foliations in the border. Chinese porcelain, 
painted in blue ; in the centre of each a varied Chinese 
subject, probably scenes from the life of a philosopher ; in 
the foliations are alternately a flower and a symbol ; border 
of detached sprigs ; on the outside are detached sprigs on 
each foliation, above which alternate flowers and symbols. 
(D. 8| in.) 

Mark of the period Ch'ing-hua, 1465-1488 (3.3). 

{Franks Collection, No. 177.) 

Ginger-Jar and Cover. On a rocky landscape with a palm tree, 
female figures (Lange Lijsen) holding a plant, and numerous 
boys ; round the cover a band of arabesque ornament ; round 
the neck a band of ornament. (H. 10 in.) 

Mark : Double rings. 

(Thomjjson Collection, No. 192.) 

Conventional Patterns, Symbols, Implements, 
Arabesques, etc. 

It would be of little use to devote much space to this large 
class, with their many-shaped medallions covered with con- 
ventional leaves, their lace-like Vandykes and escallops, their 
diapers, fringes, tassels, borders, bands, etc., their symbols of 
longevity, happiness, riches, the Pa-kwa and other devices and 
emblems described elsewhere (see p. 148 et seq.) ; but many pieces 
of this kind are of beautiful quality both in paste and colour, 
and worthy of a place in the choicest collections. Here are two 
or three descriptions of notable specimens once belonging to the 
Thompson collection : — 

Bowl of Thin Porcelain. Piittern formed of five rows of Chinese 
characters signifying longevity, terminating with a band of 
arabesque design ; on the inner edge various detached vases, 


implements, etc. ; inside, two warriors conversing. (H. 3| 
in., cl. 8 in.) 

Mark : Double ring, and Ta Tsing Kang he nien chi ; 
A.D. 1661-1772. {Thompson Collection, No. 97.) 

Pair of Ewers and Covers. On either side a shield-shaped 
medallion with conventional leaves on a ground of trans- 
parent wavy blue ; between these, two similar panels ; above, 
a band of ornament, terminating on either side in stiff blue 
leaves ; on the neck a band of ornament, the body covered 
with reticulated pattern ; on the spout and handle a running 
pattei'n of leaves and flowers, with blue dots on either side ; 
on the cover an arabesque design. (H. 7f in.) 

[Thompson Collection, No. 254.) 

Pair of Globular Bottles, with long, thin necks. On the body 
four shield-shaped medallions with an arabesque design on a 
transparent wavy blue ground, united by a band similarly 
ornamented ; above and below alternate large and small 
involuted leaves similarly ornamented ; on the neck six 
similar leaves on a quatrefoil ground in outline between two 
bands of ornament. (H. 7| in.) 

Mark : Leaf. (Thompson Collection, No. 255.) 

This is one of the prettiest of patterns, formed of arabesques 
and foliations. It is also reinarkable for its beautiful play of 
dark and pale blue. 

The foregoing descriptions of pieces of Chinese porcelain 
decorated with blue paintmg under the glaze (including those 
given on pp. 116-118) have been carefully selected from various 
catalogues of choice collections, in order to give, not a complete, 
but a tolerably full view over the whole field of Chinese 
decoration as applied to porcelain, so far as forms and subjects 
are concerned. Pure landscapes (and everyone knows the 
Chinese landscape) should be added, and some fruit subjects 
where pomegranate, peach, etc., form the motives of the design. 
No doubt nearly all collectors will note omissions which they 
themselves would not have made ; but when we come to 


consider the designs on polychrome porcelain, we shall find few 
that are new, except in colour, and it will be mainly with 
regard to colour and technique that the written illustrations of 
polychrome porcelain will be chosen. 

Section B. — Paixted in Blue with other Colours 


The colours which can be used for painting under the glaze 
are few, and are derived almost entirely from copper and cobalt. 
They include blue, reds and reddish browns, Uver and peach 
colour. Yellow is sometimes but very rarely found, although 
celadon brown and Nankin yeUow glazes as grounds to pieces so 
painted are not uncommon. A charming combination is a 
branch of a tree and a bird in blue with flowers touched Avith 
peach colour, all on a light celadon gi'ound. The flowers, etc., 
so touched are often in slight relief. 

The following pieces are in the Franks collection, some of 
which have yellow: — 

Vase, six-sided, of a barrel shape. Chinese porcelain, with ornaments 
in low relief on a deep buff ground, consisting of vases, 
weapons, etc., picked out in blue and dark brown under the 
glaze. (H. 8^ in.) 

Mark in blue, of the period Hung-woo, 1368-1399. 


Bottle, with straight neck and globular body ; designs in very low 
relief. Chinese porcelain, painted in blue, greenish yellow, 
and brown, all under glaze ; on the body and upper part of 
neck Chinese landscapes ; on the lower part of neck two 
flowering branches. (H. 15| in.) 

Mark of the period Seuen-tih, 1426-1436. 281. 

The following pieces were exhibited at the Burlington Fine 
Arts Club in 1896 :— 


Vase of rounded outline and flattened form, with two scrolled 
handles fashioned in the shape of dragons, invested with 
a linely-crackled turquoise glaze of gi*eenish tone. The 
decoration, incised in the paste under the glaze, consists of 
central medallions composed of a pair of archaic dragons 
{ch'ih-lung) coiled round a branched fungus {ling-chih), 
emblem of longevity, surrounded by five bats, emblems 
of the five kinds of happiness. A peach is engraved upon 
the neck of the vase, a chrysanthemum at the foot, and 
tasseled musical stones of jade (chi-rh'ing), symbols ot 
good luck, hang down from the handles. (H, 10 h in.) 
{Salting GoUection, No. 598.) 





474 Bowl. White, with three fish in red brown under the glaze. 

(H. 31 in.) 

Mark: Yung-Ohing, 1723-1736. 

Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

475 & 476 Pair of Long-necked Bottles, with the Pakwa, or 

eight trigrams, and the Yang and Yin symbols in blue under 
the glaze, and waves in red brown under the glaze. (H. 7| in.) 
Mark: Yung-Ching, 1723-1736. 

Lent by Mr. G. R. Davies. 

479 Bottle. Pseony decoration, pencilled in peach colour, and dull 
blue under the glaze. (H. 13 in. ) 

Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

481 Oviform Jar or Bottle. Pomegranates in red under the 

glaze, and formal borders top and bottom in same colour. 
(H. U| in.) Le7it by Mr. R. Mills. 

482 & 483 Pair of Bottles. Brilliant blue body, with white panels 

in leaf shape, and in them kylins and dogs Fo in red and 
peach colour under the glaze. (H. 8^ in.) 

Lent by Mr. G. R. Davies. 

489 Oviform Bottle. Flanged neck. Peeony decoration in blue on 

white, and two five-clawed dragons in red brown under the 
glaze. (H. 14 in.) 

Mark: Yung-Ching, 1723-1736. 

Lent by Mr. J. Annan Bryce. 

490 Small White Bottle, with kylins and dogs Fo in dark brown 

under glaze. (H. 5^ in.) Lent by Mr. W. J. Stuart. 

497 Bowl, divided into panels, with lotus in blue and brown 
under the glaze, arranged formally like the " aster pattern " 
in the "blue and white." (H. 5| in.) 

Mark : A double ring. Lent by Mr. R. Mills. 


494 White Bottle, with the three spotted fishes, each blue and 
brown, under the glaze. (H. 9| in.) 
Mark : A double ring. 

Lent by Mr, G. R. Davies. 

Section C. — Painted in Colours over the Glaze. 

Overglaze enamels (a list of which is given on page 56) 
are sometimes called vitreous enamels, not because other 
enamels or glazes are not vitreous, but because these are nearer 
to glass, being vitrified at a lower temperature. Porcelain 
decorated with these enamels comprises all the usual articles, 
figures, jars, bottles, dishes, plates, etc., and in this respect, 
and in the subjects of the decoration, differs little from 
" blue and white." The paste is the same ; but the class 
of " egg-shell " is more important, and the remarkable glass- 
like porcelain made in the reigns of Yung-cheng and Ch'ien- 
lung in imitation of the vitreous ware (called " Chinese glass ") 
made by Ku Ytieh-hsiian, is peculiar to it. As will be noted 
from what has been said in the historical section, the date 
when overglaze enamels began to be used is not quite certain, 
but they were not used very frequently till the later reigns 
of the Mings, and did not arrive at perfection till the later 
years of K'ang-hsi, if then. Till this reign the blue was 
always under the glaze. As I have already said {see p. 36), 
Ming pieces painted over the glaze are divided into two classes, 
the " three colour " and the " five colour." The " three " 
colours are a dull yellow, a lively green, and a colour which 
varies from a bro^vnish purple (prune colour) to a purplish 
brown or mouse colour. On these pieces the ground is 
generally either yellow, green, or purple, but the yellow is 
most common, and almost forms a class by itself, which 
might be named famille jaiine, in imitation of Jacquemart's 
divisions oi famille verte Mid fainille rose. The " three colour" 
porcelain, the manufacture of which has been continued from 
the Ming period till the present day, is often modelled into 

Fig. 39. — k'ang-hsi vase, decorated 
with po-ku emblems. 


natural forms, like fruits or bundles of bamboo, and decorated 
with impressed work (diapers, etc.), over which the colours 
spread in a glaze -hke wash, the reserves being painted 
with green sprays (outlined in black and brown), dragons, 
waves, etc. All kinds of objects are decorated in this way, 
including vases of some size. In the Salting collection there 
is a easeful of them, among which are some tall yellow vases * 
with long necks and flat sides, painted with rocks and plants 
on a pale yellow ground. (One has been presented by ]Mi\ 
Salting to the British Museum.) On later pieces of the 
same t}^e, while the predominant colouring remains the same, 
overglaze blue, red, black, and gilding are found. These pieces 
are generally classed under famille verte, as well as the " five 
colour " pieces in which green predominates in the colour 
scheme. The " five colours " are the " three colours " with the 
addition of blue and red. In the Ming period the blue is 
under the glaze, and this is often the case even in later pieces 
of the Ch'ing Dynasty, when, as a rule, the overglaze blue was 
substituted for it. The blue over the glaze is the only way 
to disting-uish the early Ch'ing famille verte from the later 
Ming, except that the Ming decoration is bolder and rougher 
and the potting less perfect, and that the red on the Ming 
pieces is a thin opaque colour, more like paint than glass, 
and is easily rubbed off. 

In the course of the long reign of K'ang-hsi (1662-1722), 
skill in the use of the overglaze enamels made very great 
progress, and the number of colours employed was greatly 
increased. This was partly due to the imitation of enamels on 
copper, which began to flourish about this time (the same 
enamels and the same processes were employed in each craft) , 
and partly to the example of the Japanese, who began to 
paint in soft enamels on porcelain with greater skill than 
the Chinese had been able to attain. In this case the Chinese 
learnt fi'om their pupils in the ceramic art, and it may 

* One of them is presented in Plate XII. 


perhaps be said that the -Chmese never afterwards produced 
anything more perfect in its way than the Japanese premiere 
qualite coloriee (see p. 42). In the later years of K'ang- 
hsi the discovery of the gold reds gradually changed the 
dominant colour of polychrome porcelain from green to rosy 
red, and the class known as famille rose, which developed 
to perfection under Yung-cheng and Ch'ien-lung, gradually 
superseded the famille verte. This is the period of the most 
elaborate " eggshell," when the plates * " with seven borders " 
and the dainty hanging lanterns f with perforated sides were 
made. After this and the porcelain in imitation of Ku 
Yiieh-hsiian ware no greater novelty was produced than the 
ware sometimes called "graviata," from its ground of enamel 
engraved with a spiral or curly pattern, on which sometimes 
in reserved panels and sometimes on the ground itself are 
painted medallions, flowers, etc. The enamel ground was 
ruby, yellow, pink, lavender, or a slaty blue. It is at least as 
early as Ch'ien-lung, but most of it is later, and bowls of 
it are perhaps the most prized products of the reign of 
Tao-kuang (1821-1851), and are called " Peking medallion 
bowls" under the erroneous notion that they were made at 

With regard to the class of overglaze decoration of Chinese 
porcelain, it does not seem necessary to add much to what 
I have already written in the chapter on the Ch'ing Dynasty. 
Generally it may be said to represent the most exquisite 
technique, the most gem-like colouring of all Oriental porcelain. 
A great deal of the later work, especially that of Ch'ien-lung, 
shows a strong influence of European decoration, the famille 
rose especially. The lemon yellow gi'ounds, the broken and 
soft colours, are due also to the same influence, and it is 
said that the eggshell plates with the "ruby" backs were 
made principally for the European market. It is the porcelain 
de luxe, and the -decoration is almost entirely suggested by 

* Illustrated in Plate XXII. t Illustrated in Plate XXI. 


the ^patterns of rich woven and brocaded silks. The principal 
exceptions to this are the splendid large vases with figure 
subjects executed in the richest enamels. To these Jacquemart 
applies the term Mandarin vases, a title appropriate enough 
when the personages repres§nted wear the pigtails and costume 
of the Tatars, but it is a term which has very little meaning 
noAv that it is applied in the trade to all porcelain supposed 
to have been manufactured under the Ch'ing Dynasty which 
cannot be otherAvise classed. 

An attempt has been made in the following collection of 
descriptions of pieces of Chinese porcelain with overglaze 
colours to divide the class into groups or " families," with 
subdivisions as follow : — Famille Verte, including, Three 
Colour ; Various ; Black Ground ; Powder Blue Ground. 
This class is interesting as the foundation of the large class 
of Japanese china imported into Europe in the eighteenth 
century, and generally Imown as " Old Jap," Famille Rose ; 
Eggshell ; Red and White ; Black and White ; Chrysanthe- 
mum- Pseony ; Graviata, or Peking; Vitreous Porcelain, in 
imitation of Ku-Yueh's Glass ; and Miscellaneous. The latter 
is necessarily a very large class. 

Famine Verte (Three Colour). 

Extracts from Catalogue of the Exhibition of the Burlington 
Fine Arts Club in 1896 :— 

42 Hexagonal Vase and Cover. The sides covered with palm 

leaves represented as being kept in their places by a band 
decorated with blossoms in black. Rich green glazes, with 
pale 5'ellow and mouse colour and a little black, compose the 
decoration. The cover pale yellow and green, and the knob 
mouse colour. The body of the vase is hard white porcelain. 
Early Ming, (H. 9^,) Le7it by Mr. E. Mills. 

43 A Bowl. The ground, inside and out, a pale plum colour 

glaze, highly iridescent. The outside decorated with 


chrysanthemums, in yellow and white, and the Fong-hoa 
bird in yellow and green, and the inside with same yellow 
flowers and lotus in white. (H. 3| in.) 
Mark: Kea-tsing, 1522-1567. 

Lent by Mr. R. Mills. 

44 Squat Jar. No cover. Material, white porcelain, principally 

covered with apple-green glaze, divided into panels, with 
five-clawed dragons, lotus and other flowers, and the sacred 
symbols all in yellow. (H. 7 in.) 
Mark: Ch'ing-hua, 1465-1488. 

Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

45 Cup. Decoi'ated inside and out in deep green glaze, with black 

lines symbolising waves, and horses in yellow, prunus 
blossoms and artemisia leaves and shell and other symbols 
in white and mouse colour. (H. 2|^ in.) 

Lent by Mr. W. J. Stuart. 

48 An Oviform Jar. Small mouth, flanged, yellow glaze ground, 
with two ladies and a boy in green and brown. CH. 9 in.) 
A Ming piece of fine quality. 

Mark : A double ring in brown. 

Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

Famine Verte (Three op more Coloups). 

18 and 19 Pair of Vessels, with spout and lid. The handles 
formed by kylins, in one the male kylin with the brocaded ball, 
and in the other the female with a cub. Black enamel with 
green, yellow, and red decoration. Early famille verte, 
Ming. (H. 9 in.) Le7it by Mr. W. H. Cope. 

53 and 54 Two Saucer Plates, decorated with six conventional- 
ised chiysanthemum blossoms in blue, brown, and green 
enamel, and red paint with green enamel leaves and stalks, 
and formal hexagonal pattern border, with the symbols 
i-ound the upper edge. Ming. (D. 8| in.) 

Lent by Mr. R. Mills. 


Small Crackled Vase of the furnace transmutation {ijao-pien), 
or flamhe class, with a purple body vertically streaked 
with darker lines, shoaling towards the shoulder, till the 
red fades away on the neck, leaving a finely-crackled 
ground of greyish-green tint. The lip is tinged at the top 
by blotches of a warmer purple, almost crimson, and the 
colour again asserts itself as the liquescent glaze runs down 
inside the mouth of the vase where it was shielded from 
the oxidising action of the flames. (H. 9 in.) {Saltiny 
Collection, No. 632.) 


56 Hexagonal Vase and Cover. Yellow glaze ground, with 

white hawthorn, and dun-coloured pseony, and green almond 
sprays and birds. 

Sacred symbols round neck and cover. A Ming famUle 
verte piece. (H. 12|^ in.) Lent by Mr. W. J. Stvxtrt. 

66 Oblong" Box, with lid. Decoi-ated throughout with diapers in 
green and yellow, with the Swastika in each diaper. Five 
circular longevity symbols on lid, one blue and four red, and 
each side with white panel on which the sacred symbols are 
enamelled in various colours. Famille verte, probably late 
Ming. (H. 2 1 in.) Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

77 and 78 Pair of Jars with small mouths. The subject — some 
courtiers offering gifts to an emperor. Beautiful specimens 
of i\\Q famille verte decoration. (H. 12| in.) 

Mark : A cycle date. Sin-se Nien-chi. " In the 18th 
year this was made." Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

82 Cylindrical Bottle, with flanged mouth. Decoration : A 
powdered red ground, passing into white at the neck, and 
large pseonies, pink and yellow, and a bird. Prevailing 
character, famille verte, with the dawn of the famille rose 
in the pseony. (H. 8 in.) 

Mark : The artemisia leaf enamelled in green. 

Lent by Mr. G. R. Davies. 

87 Cylindrical Jar, with red ground, like No. 79. Two oblong 

panels with birds and collar round shoulder, all in rich 

green decorations. (H. 10| in.) 

Lent by Mr. W. J. Stuart. 

100 Cylindrical Jar. Green ground with cranes in black and 
white, and clouds yellow and mouse colour. (H. 1\ in.) 

I^ent by Air. Louis Huth. 

113 Four-sided Jar. Bulbous towards the bottom, on square 
stand. Pale yellow. The figures mostly in green and dun 
colour. Landscape and river scenes. Handles at side of 
neck composed of green dragons. (H. 21 in.) 

Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 


115 Oviform Vase. Flanged mouth, entirely covered with rich 

apple-green ground, with branching prunus in white, and 
some birds. (H. 18 in.) 

Mark : Ch'ing-hua in black paint. 

Lent hy Mr. W. Arkioright. 

116 Four-sided Jar. Same shape and character as No. 113, but 

the decorations even finer. A I'ock in deep blue enamel, and 
the flowers and birds exquisitely drawn. (H. 19| in.) 

Lent hy Mr. G. ISaUing. 

123 Hexagonal Stand, on six feet. White branching prunus, 
with brown stems on deep green ground. (H. 3 in.) 

Lent hy Mr. G. Salting. 

126 Large Dish. Rich specimen of rather late famille verte. 
Basket of flowers in centre, with panels of various flowers. 
Mark : The double scroll. 

Lent by Mr. A. Cock, Q.C. 

133 Large Dish, saucer-shaped. A large kylin, in rich green 
enamel, occupying the whole centre. No border. Edges 
bound in metal, three kylins on the back, six marks of 
Yung-ching, 1723-1736, but quite in character of famille 
verte. (D. 15| in.) 

Lent hy Mr. W. J. Stuart. 

Black Enamel Grounds (Famille Vepte). 

28 Beaker, of brilliant green glaze over the figures, which are of a 
very dark green or black. Glaze very iridescent. The 
subject is the Sixteen Arhats, Buddhist Divinities. 

58 Hexagonal Brush Pot. Covered with thick black glaze and 
the eight Inamortals on the sides. A very early Ming piece 
or (see No. 96, Case C) possibly Sung. (H. \0h in-) 

Lent hy Mr. C. A. Whitehead. 

372 Jar, with metal neck. Black enamel. Apparently the subject 
is Si Wang Mu, a fabulous being of female sex, dwelling on 
Mt. Kw'en-lun, with troops of genii, and at times holding 
intercourse with favoui'ed votaries. King Mu Wang is 


Fig. 40.— vase enamelled with 
the flowers of the 
four seasons. 


15 ew 

vof •-- 






said to have entertained her at the Lake of Gems in the 
West. She is mentioned in the Books of Chow, which date 
long before the Christian era. She bestowed the fruit of 
the peach, which conferred immortahty ; and sometimes 
despatched birds as messengers to her votaries. She is 
sometimes represented as seated on the fong-hoa, and some- 
times as standing on the clouds. In this piece she holds a 
child. (H. 9| in.) Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

373 Larger Bowl. Black enamel and dark green lotus wreaths in 
borders. Four panels with landscapes and birds. Inside the 
rim a border of lotus in red and white. (H. 5 in.) 

Le7it hy Mr. G. Salting. 

385 Four-sided Jar. Slightly flanged neck, wdth metal rim. 

Black enamel ground with branching prunus, freely drawn, 
on all four sides, with green centres and brown stems, and 
yellow and green parroquets. (H. 19| in.) 

Recessed square at bottom, glazed and square seal mark. 

386 Nearly Cylindrical Jar. Flanged neck. Two large oblong 

panels on either side with prunus branches and pseonies with 
birds in colours, and between these a circular and leaf -shaped 
panel on either side with cocks, beetles, etc. Leaf -shaped panels 
on neck and round the shoulder. The whole ground of jar 
black enamel delicately covered with small green running 
decoration and prunus blossom and leaves in colours, formal 
pale green ornamentation round base. (H. \1^ in.) 

Lent hy Mr. G. R. Davies. 

389 Vase. Flanged neck. Green decoration of lotus running over 
a black glaze. Quite different from the thick black enamel 
of the former pieces. (H. 14 in.) 

Seal mark : Keen-lung, 1736-1795. 

Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

Black Enamel Grounds (Black and White). 

378 Oval Bottle. With exception of a formal border round the 
neck, the whole bottle decorated by a flowing pattern of 
chrysanthemums and leaves in white on a black ground. 
From Burghley House Collection. (H. 17 in.) 
This is an almost unique piece. Lent by Mr. Louis Huth. 


383 & 384 Pair of Beakers. Black ground with small prunus 
branches and blossom in white. (H. 17 in.) 

Lent by Mr. G. F. Davies. 

FamiUe Verte (powder blue ground with reserve panels 

painted in colours). 

427 & 428 Pair of nearly similar Saucer Dishes. Deep 

powdered blue, with circular panel in centre and four other 

panels with landscapes and birds in brilliant colours. (D. 

10| in.) 

Seal mark on one (427). 

Lent by Mr. W. J. Stuart. 

N.B. — The other, 428, has the same mark as the two 
bowls following. 

429 & 430 Pair of Powdered Blue Bowls. Covered inside and 
outside with deep blue and some gilding, and with panels 
decorated in colours. (H. 3| in.) 
Mo.rk : The " koeui " stone. 

Lent by Mr. C. A. Whitehead. 

431 & 432 Pair of Triple Gourd Bottles, mounted in metal. 
Brilliant powdered blue, with panels decorated in colours. 
(H. 10 in.) Lent by Mr. S. E. Kennedy. 

Famine Rose. 

137 Plate. European shape, but deep. Covered with luby glaze, a 

large scroll-shaped panel being left in centre, with two cocks 
and a pseony ; a branch of prunus going across the plate. 
Four panels with landscapes, and four sprays on border. 
(D. 9 in.) Lent by Mr. W. Mitchell. 

138 Large Saucer-shaped Plate. Paeonies and chrysanthemum 

delicately drawn, occupying the whole surface. (D. 12 in.) 
Dresden ?nar A; ; N = 176. 

Lent by Mr. Wm. C. Alexander. 

141 & 142 Two Octagonal Plates. A boating scene in one, a 
lady punting, and another on the bank with a child on her 

[the NEW YORK 
PUBLIC U^'P-^P-"^ 

















1— 1 














. — 1 




back ; and a domestic scene in the other, a lady with two 
children in a garden. Blue enamel borders to both, with 
lotus flower in each angle, and festoons in pink enamel. 
(D. 7| in.) Lent by Mr. Willoror/hby Loudon. 

144 Four-sided Vase, for flowers. Open reticulations on each 
side and on shoulders and the flanged top, which lifts out, 
having a square receptacle for water. Blue and pink glazes 
round the panels, etc. (H. 11 in.) 

Lent by Mr. W. J. Stuart. 

147 & 148 Pair of Octagonal Plates. Ruby borders, with lappets 
of black enamel. A formal lotus blossom in centre, with four 
sprays, and a delicate festoon pattern in ruby. (D. 8 in.) 

Lent by Mr. Willoughby Loudon. 

149 Saucer-shaped Dish, with the eight Immortals radiating round 

a large lotus flower in the centre, the whole dish being the 

shape of the flower. For the history of the eight Immortals, 

see No. 96, Case C. (D. 10 in.) 

Lent by Mr. W. J. Stuart. 

150 Shaving Dish. Three figures on a I'ich carpet, with jars and 

fans and scrolls. Overhead a branch of prunus. Lovely 
border of pale green, with various coloured prunus blossoms, 
and large pseony blossoms in richest rose colour. Oval shape, 
12 in. long. Cut out to fit the chin. 

Lent by Mr. G. B. Davies. 

155 Cylindrical Vase. Flanged mouth. Lax-ge lotus natural- 

istically drawn, with a kingfisher. Square mark, and leaf on 

side of neck. (H. \1\ in.) 

Lent by Mr. C. A. Whitehead. 

156 Teapot. Kylins as spout and handle. Circular bosses in relief 

in form of flowers, a:ilt centres and knob on lid. Small 
spandrils of black enamel. (H. 5 in.) 

Lent by Mr. W. H. Cope. 

163 Shaving Dish in form of Scallop Shell. A good deal of 

black enamel in parts, remnants of the famille verte, and 


rich pseony decoration and some cocks. The back equally 
decorated, with three feet to stand it on. (D. about 13 in.) 

Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

Egr^shell Popeelain. 

110 & 111 Pair of Delicate Saucer Plates. The whole surface 
covered with a garden scene, a lady and attendants, with a 
cistern with gold fish, flowers on stands, a deer holding the 
longevity fungus, a crane, a cat, etc., all wrought with the 
delicacy of eggshell decoration. (D. 8| in.) 

Lent by Mr. W. J. Stuart. 

300 Jar. Eggshell. White glaze, crackled with a delicately 

designed pseonj^ enamelled in colours. (H. 8| in.) 

Lent by Mr. G. R. Davies. 

301 & 302 Pair of very Delicate Eggshell Jars. Mounted in 

metal, with subject of the IG or 18 Arhats, as described in 
Ko. 28. Some of the Arhats are accompanied sometimes by 
attendants. These appear to be 16 Arhats and two attend- 
ants. (H. 9 in.) Lent by Mr. Willovghhy Loudon. 

303 Bowl. Eggshell. Two figure subjects, apparently congratula- 
tory presents being offered to a magnate in either case. 
(H. 2| in.) Lent by Mr. B. Duppa Lloyd. 

322 «& 323 Pair of Eggshell Saucer Plates. A woodpecker (?) 
on one, and a quail on the other. (D. 8 in.) 

Lent by Mr. W. H. Cope. 

324 A Fine Eggshell Lantern. Decorated with figures in rich 
colours, on a silver stand. (Total H. 13| in.) 

Lent by Mr. G. R. Davies. 

327 Eggshell Saucer-shaped Plate. Garden scene. Man and 
woman dancing ; various spectators at windows. Very 
delicately coloured. Formerly in the Beckford collection. 
(D. 8 in.) Lent by Mr. W. J. Stuart. 

[q-prr. ---vv YORK] 


Fig. 42. — VASE entirely painted 

WITH copper-red OF 

the a rand feu. 


333 & 334 Pair of Eggshell Plates. With ruby backs. Large 

citron and flowers in one, and pomegranate, etc., in the other. 
(D. 6 in.) Lent by Mr. W. J. Stuart. 

"Red and TVhlte." 

Besides the " red and white " painted over the glaze with an 
iron red, there are some pieces painted under the glaze with a 
copper red — sometimes brilliant but generally of a maroon tinge. 

393 Cylindrical Jar. Entirely decorated with different shades of 
red and white. Large paeonies and leaves running over the 
jar and the ground, with small symbols of cloud in white on 
a red ground. (H. 17| in.) Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

Chpysanthemum-Pseony Decopation. 

367 Large Bowl, decorated inside and outside. Pseonies and 
chrysanthemum and prunus decoration, interspersed with the 
Chinese symbols ; the prevailing colours being the red, blue, 
and gold so much affected by the Japanese. (H. 7| in.) 
Mark : The Sacred fungus. Lent by Mrs. Halsey. 

496 Bowl, of the Chrysanthemum-Pseonian decoration in rich 
colour, which so much of the Japanese decoration after- 
wards imitated. Inside a good famille verte. Group of 
pseonies, etc. (H. 5^ in.) Lent by Mr. R. Mills. 

535 Bowl, with scalloped rim. Chrysanthemum-Pseonian decoration 
of the style so much imitated by the Japanese of the eigh- 
teenth century. 

Mark: " Tuning fork " in blue under the glaze. 

Lent by Mr. G. H. Houghton, R.A. 

Vitreous Porcelain in Imitation of Ku Yueh's Glass. 

The following specimens are in the Hippisley collection at 
Washington. The first (No. 324) is an example of the glass 
ware, the rest (Nos. 328-334) a special group of the porcelain 
made with it as a model, to secure a like transparency of colour 
with increased richness of ground : — 


324 Water-holder (small) of dull, opaque white Ku Yiieh-hsuan 
vitreous ware of cylindrical shape. Decorated with a land- 
scape very beautifully painted in natural colours, representing 
a young shepherd clad in Chinese dress, but whose features 
are unmistakably European, tending a ram and two ewes on 
a grassy sward, confined by lofty rocks, among which grow 
herbs and flowering trees. The painting is characterised by 
all the delicacy of touch of a miniature. Mark in form of a 
seal engraved in foot and filled with blue enamel, Ch'ien-lung 
nien chih, "Made in the Ch'ien-lung (1736-1795) period." 

328 & 329 Rice Bowls (a pair) of thin, pure white Yung-cheng 
(1723-1735) porcelain, covered with a very brilliant trans- 
parent vitreous glaze to secure the delicate transparency 
in the colouring, remarkable in the Ku Yiieh-hsiian ware 
(Nos. 323 to 327), and hence termed, as are Nos. 330 to 336, 
Chinese, fang-ku-yileh-hsuan, modelled after that ware. 
Decorated with branching sprays of plum-blossom, beautifully 
drawn and shaded in sepia above the glaze, the artist's idea 
being explained by a stanza to the following effect : — 

The student sees the outline sharp 
Of plum-bloom by the moonlight cast 

On window-blind, and breathes the scent 
Of unseen flow'rets wafted past. 

(H. 2| in., d. 4^ in.) 

Mark as on No. 324. 

330 Teapot of pure white Ch'ien-lung porcelain of globular shape, 
and covered with brilliant vitreous glaze, upon which are 
very beautifully painted groups of white and of pink lotus 
flowers, and leaves crinkled into many but quite natural 
shapes, and showing the dark upper and light lower sides, 
with buds and seed pods. On cover are groups of the same 
flowers and leaves arranged in three clumps around the 
knob, which is a flattened globe bearing the character Shou 
(longevity) in carmine. On the teapot is the inscription : 
" Pure as the Aartue of the perfect man," that is, as jade, 
which from a passage in the " Classic of Ceremonial " is con- 
sidered the symbol of such virtue, " harmonious as the 

Fig. 43. — IMPERIAL ch'ien-luxg 



strength of him who fulfils all his duties to his fellow men." 
(H. 4i in.) 

Mark as on No. 324. 

331 & 332 Cups of same porcelain and bearing precisely the same 
decoration. No. 330 came from the collection of the Prince 
of I. Several months later these corresponding cups, which 
doubtless at one time belonged to the same owner, were pur- 
chased from among unclaimed goods in a Peking pawnshop. 
Curiously enough, however, the seal attached to the inscrip- 
tion on the cups, though this is evidently by the same hand 
as is that on the teapot, differs from the seal on the latter 
(H. If in., d. 21 in.) 

333 & 334 Vases (a pair) of pure white Ch'ien-lung porcelain, of 
flattened globular shape, with slender neck representing half 
total height, and everted brim covered with brilliant vitreous 
glaze, on which the decoration is painted. Around the foot 
is a band of light blue ornamented with delicate foliate scroll 
in \nolet. Above the band runs another band of panel 
ornamentation in carmine edged with dull green, which, with 
a band below neck of conventional dragons, alternately 
green and pink, on a magenta ground, enclose the body of 
the vase. This, on a deep blue ground, ornamented with 
conventional clouds of yellow, green, blue, and red, and bats 
of pink shaded with carmine, and of yellow shaded with 
orange, bears four medallions with pure white ground of 
dazzling brilliancy, containing groups of flowers most 
delicately painted — pseonies and bamboos, lilies, longevity 
fungus and red-seeded heavenly bamboo {Nandina domestica), 
lilies and poppies, and yellow hibiscus and green and red 
coleus. At foot of neck is a band of orange, the neck itself 
being of lemon yellow ornamented with conventional flowers 
and foliage in many colours, confined below by a band of 
foliated pattern in blue shaded with deeper tones of the same 
colour, and above by a single band, outlined with a dotted 
border of blue, in carmine and shaded with the latter colour, 
the decoration ending in a narrow border of pale yellow 
pattern outlined with black. The colours throughout are 


subdued in tone, producing a very rich and hai-monious 
effect. (H. 7 1 in.) 

Mark as on No. 324. 

Graviata (or Peking) Ware. 

173 Vase, with narrow neck and handles on either side. Ground, a 
pink glaze with small pattern engraved in the paste, and over 
it decoration in enamelled colours, of lotus flowers inter- 
^ spersed with red bats. 

This is an example of what used to be called " Peking 
Graviata Ware," and was said to have been made in Peking. 
This, however, is not the case ; but it was paid as a yearly 
tribute to the Emperor at Peking, who consequently had a 
very large collection of it, of which he made presents to 
European and other visitors. It was made late in the reign 
of Keen-lung. (H. 19i in.) 

Seal mark of Keen-lung in red on a white square, the 
rest of the bottom being sea green, 1736-1795. 

Lent by Mr. A. Morrison. 

298 & 299 Pair of Small Bowls. Blue and white inside, outside 
covered with blue graviata glaze, with clouds in coloured 
enamel. Four circular panels in white, with landscapes and 
figures in enamel (H. 2^ in.) 

^QaXmark: Taou-kwang, 1821-1850. 

Lent by Mr. W. H. Cope. 

359 Smaller Bowl. More delicate. Yellow glaze. Graviata with 
panels, flowers, etc. 

Seal mark : Taou-kwang, 1821-1850. 

Lent by Mr. W. H. Cope. 


21 Nearly Cylindrical, Wide-mouthed Jar. Blue under glaze, 
with yellow horse and dun horse, etc. Persian in character. 
Ming piece. (H. 8 in.) Lent by Mr. R. Mills. 

65 Square Sweetmeat Box, on four feet, with divisions. 

Decorated inside and out with deep red ground, the out- 




I— t 









side with figures, and inside with peaches and citrons, 
pomegranates, and other fruits enamelled in various colours. 
The top edges gilt. 

A piece of unknown characteristics, but pronounced by 
various experts to be Chinese of an early date. (H. 2^ in.) 

Lent by Mr. 6. Salting. 

68 A Flat-backed Cistern. Made to hang against the wall, with 
cover, and metal cock on a carved wood stand, and a flat 
dish or basin standing in front, both fluted. Decorated 
with crabs and various fishes and bird in deep rich colours. 
Early famille verte. Ming Dynasty. (Total h. 24 in.) 

Lent by Mr. Willoughby Loridon. 

85 Oviform Jar, small flanged mouth, entirely covered with 

delicate decoration of dragons and lotus in colours on 
green ground, the stalks and leaves being white. Thi-ee 
bands of blue divide the jar unequally. Lion-head handles 
in white. (H. 12 in.) Lent by Mr. Louis Huth. 

86 Cup for Libations. ("Tsio" cup.) The handle with green 

and blue dragon on either side, rich green enamel in panels 
on upper edge, with swastika, fan, and other symbols. 

Lent by Mr. Willoughby Loudon. 

90 Large Deep Dish. A scene in the court of a house, a mandarin 
with two attendants paying a visit to a lady, also with two 
attendants. Border of different rich diapers, with .six 
panels with landscapes. (D. 15 in.) 

Mark : The Sacred Stone (inside double ring). 

Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

96 Large Globular Incense Burner. God of Longevity on top, 
and the eight Immortals on the eight panels of the upper 
half, and other figures ; boys playing on the eight lower 
panels. The base is in stripes of yellow, green, and black, 
and a richly carved wooden stand completes the design. 

112 Square Jar. Flanged neck. Delicate decoration. Various 
shaped panels of a kylin, horse, crab, sacred horse, birds, 


landscape, etc. Dotted ground in red with vaiious 
blossoms on it. (H. 19^ in.) Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

117 Cylindrical Jar. Flanged neck ; creamy ground, covered 
with branching prunus in white and red, and birds of blue 
and yellow plumage, etc. (H. 18 in.) 

Mark : A double ring. Lent by Mr. G. R. Davies. 

124 Circular Sweetmeat Box and Cover, with high knob at 
the top. The cover very richly ornamented, and round the 
side of the box hunting and fivshing scenes and Dutch 
galleons, showing European influence, probably made for the 
Dutch in the time of Kang-he. (H. 9 in.) 

Lent by Mr. G. Salting. 

172 A Double Square Columnar Piece, the two squares joined 

at one corner, narrowing at the neck, and expanding above 
like the capital of a column. A bluish glaze, with branches 
of prunus in brown, and the blossoms pink and white. 
Probably a stand for sticks or sunshades. (H. of higher 
column 21^ in., and of lower column 17f in.) 

Lent by Mr. H. WUlett. 

325 & 326 Pair of Mandarin Jars. Turquoise ground, of the 
colour afterwards imitated at Sfevres, with the various 
symbols of magistrates in colours at intervals, with gold 
reticulations over the whole. Two panels on each, with 
landscapes. Very thin paste, approaching to eggshell. 
Figured in Marryat's " History of Porcelain," Plate III,, 
as being in his collection. (H. 14 in.) 

Lent by Mr. Willoughby Loudon. 

^11 Large Bottle. Pale blue glaze, pjeony flower, etc., in green 
celadon glaze in relief. (H. 14^ in.) 

Lent by Mr. W. Mitchell. 

478 Oviform Bottle. Deep blue glaze. Four-clawed dragons pen- 
cilled in white. (H. 7| in.) 

Mark: Ch'ing-hua, in two characters only, 1465-1488, 

but evidently of later date. 

Lent by Mr. G. JR. Davies. 


Openwork Lantern, one of a pair, ot' oval hexagonal form, with 
panels carved in openwork designs, decorated in the soft 
enamels of the famille rose, belonging to the Ch'ien-lung 
period (1736-95). The six sides have oblong panels 
pierced with trelliswork, of two different patterns, round 
small solid medallions, which are painted Avith miniature 
garden scenes and pictures of ladies wandering about or 
engaged in the " four elegant accomplishments," music, 
chess, painting, or writing. The upper and lower receding 
rims are both pierced with six smaller panels. The 
borders and edges are richly decorated with roses and 
other floral brocades, painted upon diapered grounds of 
diverse pattern. (H. 14^ in.) {Salting Collection, No. 

<J.^ 'a'^ ''>^ 



4 I 

■ <"*i™y!H' 








393 & 394 Pair of Six-sided Vases. Sea-green glaze inside and 
at bottom, and outside thick red glaze with vases, incense 
burners, painting utensils, and other symbols. (H. 12 in.) 
Six marks in square. 

" Painting of Leang-kwo-ki, in the Wo-shin year," i.e. the 
5th year of the 75th cycle; a.d. 1808 {see Sir A. Wollaston 
Franks' Catalijgue, p. 222): "Wo shin nien Leang-kwo-ki- 
shoo." * 

Lent hy Mr. Louis Huth. 

395 Cylindrical Jar. Rich blue glaze, with symbols in gilding 

round neck. Also the waves round the body of the jar, in 
which four large carp, in red, besport themselves. (H. 19 in.) 

Lent hy Mr. G. Salting. 

396 High Vase-shaped Beaker, with flanged top. The ground 

covered with small diaper pattern in red and gold inter- 
spersed with small dragons, fish, and shells. Four square 
panels round body, with four leaf-shaped panels below, and 
four smaller oblong panels round base. 

On the neck two leaf -shaped and two oblong panels, the 
latter used as tablets for some poem, while all the other 
panels have landscapes with quotations from poems above. 
(H. 281 in.) 

Mark : Double ring. Lent by Mr. W. Arkwright. 

397 & 398 Pair of Dishes. A warrior riding on a kyHn in centre, 

with a lance, attended by a follower bearing a vase with a 
lotus in it. Rich border of pseonies and almond blossoms, 
interrupted by six panels with a red carp and a brown fish 
alternately. (D. 15|^ in.) Lent hy Mr. G. R. Davies. 

* In a review of the "Burlington Fine Arts Catalogue," printed in China, I 
ventured to remark that the fifth Chinese character deciphered kwo was really t'ou, 
and that the sixth, ki, had been arbitrarily cut into two parts, to be read ki-shoo. 
Leang, moreover, as written here, is not a surname. I would read the "mark " : — 
" Painted after a good picture {liang t'ou) in the cycKcal year wu ch'Sn " ; and refer 
it to 1748, as the technique seems to be that of an earlier cycle than the one 
indicated above.— S. "W. B. 




This mode of decoration has been very well described 
by Sir W. Franks, who says: "A beautiful mode of varjdng 
the decoration of porcelain is exemplified by the specimens in 
this class, in which ornaments appear to have been cut through 
the substance of the porcelain and filled in with glaze. To do 
this successfully must have required no little skill ; in some 
cases the design consists of dragons, in others portions of leaves 
or flowers are rendered semi-transparent, but the most usual 
decoration is composed of bands of diaper or star pattern. It is 
probable that these wares are not older than the eighteenth 
century. In Persia, white bowls of a soft fritty porcelain were 
made, which have rude decorations of the same nature, but there 
is no evidence to show in which country this mode of orna- 
mentation originated." 

The Persian ware referred to by Sir Wollaston, though not 
porcelain proper, as it is not perfectly vitrified, has a milky 
translucency, and is perhaps in appearance the nearest approach 
to porcelain of any soft pottery. It is often called Gombroon 
ware, on the supposition that it is identical with the ware 
referred to by Horace Walpole and other writers of the 
eighteenth century. There are several specimens of it in the 
British and South Kensington Museums. This perforated ware 
is called by the French grains de riz. The decoration of this 
kind of Persian ware is nearly always of a Chinese character. 

Two Cups and Saucers. Chinese porcelain painted in blue ; in 
the bottom of each a landscape ; quatrefoil and leaf boi'dera ; 
around a band of formal pierced pattern, filled in with 
glaze. (D. 3J in., h. 5| in.) 457. 

Shallow Bowl, with raised centre, the sides pierced in a geometrical 
pattern and filled in with glaze. Chinese porcelain painted 
in blue ; on the centre the Chinese character Fuh, " Happi- 

THE : 


Fig. 46. - the crucifixiox : Chinese 
copy of europeax en- 


ness," surrounded by five bats ; border in white on a blue 
ground; outside a blue border. (H. 1| in., d. 4| in.) 

Mark ; In the seal character, of the period Keen-lung, 
1736-1795. 458. 

Flower Pot. Chinese porcelain. Round the upper and lower 
parts formal borders, painted in blue ; the remainder of 
the body ornamented with a pierced pattern, filled in 
with glaze. (H. 6^ in., d. 9 in.) 458a. 

Bowl and Cover. Chinese porcelain, of a pale blue body, painted 
in colours ; inside a magnolia tree in blossom ; outside a 
similar tree growing, with other flowers and a branch of 
the same ; similar decoration on cover. The porcelain has 
been pierced in places and filled in with glaze, so that 
the petals of some of the flowers should appear more 
transpai'ent when held up to the light. (H. 3 in., d. 4| in.) 
Mark : On bowl and cover, in the seal character, of 
the period Keen-lung, 1736-1795, 459. 

Other Classes of Chinese Porcelain. 

I have thought it best to adhere to the classification of 
Franks in the catalogue of his collection now in the British 
Museum, as it is the only catalogue of a large collection of 
Chinese porcelain in England which is procurable by all. 
Nor could it well be improved. I have, however, given the 
first five classes only, as the others were more or less outside 
the scope of this book. Nevertheless, it may be interesting to 
some of my readers to read a few words about some of these 

Few of them have any great artistic merit, but the most 
interesting class is the Class X. of Franks, " Oriental Porcelain 
with Foreign Designs." These may be divided into (a) 
" Copies of European Designs and Engravings " ; (6) " Scenes 
with European Figures, including Statuettes " ; (c) " Christian 
Subjects (usually called ' Jesuit china ') " ; and (d) " Services 
with Armorial Bearings." These are painted in various ways, 


often in black and gold, with faces in pale flesh colour. 
Copies of engravings of all kinds are found, sometimes of 
subjects from classic mythology. The cross-hatching is done 
with much care, but the Chinese attempts to copy the figures 
and expressions are not very successful and sometimes ludicrous. 
Others are painted in blue, like the famous "Keyser" cups, 
which are tall and have covers, and show, in the principal 
panels of the cover and the cup, a European king and queen 
seated, with the motto, U EMPIRE DE LA VERTU EST 
One of these is in the Franks collection (282) and another 
belongs to Lord Battersea. These are of fine quality, and 
so are the cups known as "Cuckoo" cups, painted with a 
Dutch design known in Holland as " Koekoek in het Huisje " 
(the cuckoo in the house) {see Franks, 581). Many of these 
pieces are Dutch in subject, with ships (the earliest date, in 
European characters, on a ship piece in the Franks collection 
is 1700) or towns. On such pieces are sometimes found 
absurdly early Chinese date marks. A plate, for instance, 
in the Franks collection (580), representing the siege of 
a Dutch town, supposed to be Rotterdam, and evidently 
copied from a Dutch design, is marked Cheng-hua (1465- 
1487). The figures in European costume of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries are always clumsy but sometimes 
amusing, especially the statuettes, of which Mr. Henry Willett 
of Brighton, the well-knoAvn collector of all kinds of beautiful 
and curious things, has some rare specimens from the Hamilton 
sale, representing very square-built couples indulging in a 
vigorous dance. 

The " Jesuit " china is interesting, but often rather painful 
The best specimen of it which I know is a plate with a repre- 
sentation of the Crucifixion, with many figures painted in rich 
colours, evidently in imitation of a Majolica plate. It belongs 
to Mr. GuUand of Brighton, and is figured in his book (Fig. 417). 
Also of a Christian character, but scarcely entitled to the term 



A6T0R, LE 

I— t 






(^ < 
O ^ 




"Jesuit," is a plate in honour of Martin Luther, with a medallion 
of him, and another with Christ and the twelve apostles (Franks, 

The " armorial " china is necessarily interesting, mainly to 
genealogists. It was made in large quantities during the 
eighteenth century for European families, especially in Holland 
and England, who ordered table services decorated with their 
armorial bearings. In the Franks collection is a plate with the 
arms of Frederick the Great (606) and a salt cellar with the 
Royal arms of France (608), and many others of less dis- 
tinguished origin. In my own possession is a plate presented to 
me by a friend who is the Uving representative of the old 
Guernsey family of Andros, which offers an amusing instance of 
Chinese fidelity in imitation. The family ordered a service to 
be painted with their arms, and for the guidance of the artist 
sent a pen or pencil drawing of them with the name of each 
colour written in the appropriate compartment. The service 
returned duly painted, but the artist took the words "red," 
" green," " blue," to be part of the decoration, and copied them 
exactly as written. There they are still to be observed under 
the enamel, which is never of the right colour. Thus under 
the red is the word " blue," and vice versa. The family then 
ordered another service, taking the precaution to send out a 
drawing of their arms carefully emblazoned in the right 
colours. I have also a plate of the second service, which was 
quite successful. 

Foreign designs on Chinese porcelain are not all Euro- 
pean, many pieces being made for Mohammedan markets in 
India, Persia, etc. (see pp. 75, 76). Those made to accord with 
Siamese taste are of very marked character. They are decorated 
with Buddhist figures, animals, etc., in very brilliant enamels 
(see GuUand, Figs. 409, 410 and 411, and Franks' Catalogue, 
Class IX.). 

Of Franks' other classes of Chinese porcelain something 
will be found elsewhere ; regarding Oriental porcelain decorated 


in Europe (Class XL), and of porcelain in combination with 
other substances (Class XII.), it is merely necessary to say that 
the only kind of Chinese porcelain of this class is that coated 
with lacquer, and ornamented with mother-of-pearl, which is 
called by the French porcelaine laqu4e hurgauUe. 


These marks are very numerous and of many different kinds 
They are divided into — |. 

1. Date marks. 

2. Hall marks. 

3. Marks of dedication and good wishes 

4. Marks in praise of the pieces on which they are inscribed. 

5. Symbols and other pictorial marks. 

6. Potters' marks. 

It is not intended that the following lists shall be exhaustive 
— such marks are only selected as will be the most useful to the 
general collector. All date marks previous to those of the Ming 
Dynasty are therefore excluded, and generally any marks of a 
complicated character are left out, the object being by those that 
are given to fix on the memory certain Chinese characters of 
simple and distinct meaning. The fuller lists will be found in 
many well-known books, such as Bu shell's " Oriental Ceramic 
Art," Chaffers' " Marks and MonogTams," and Hooper and 
Phillips' " Pottery and Porcelain Marks." 

1. — Date Marks. 

The Chinese have two modes of indicating a date — 1st, by a 
cycle of sixty years ; 2nd, by the Nien-hao, or name given to 
the reign of an emperor, or to a portion of such reign. 

Fig. 49.— k'axg-hsi vase: laquee 
burgautee porcelain. 

It Hi'- ^■ 

'^'^ i ■■ 



Chinese cycles are of sixty years, and the present cycle, com- 
mencing in 1864, is reckoned as the 76th ; the number of the 
cycle is never given on porcelain, so that it is very difficult to 
fix the date by this alone. Cyclical dates are, however, very 
rare, and the reader is referred on this subject to Franks' Cata- 
logue, p. 208, etc, Nien-hao is the name adopted by a Chinese 
emperor after ascending the throne to indicate the years of 
his reign. It dates from the beginning of the first new year 
after his accession, and is supposed to signify the qualities of 
the Emperor. Thus the Nien-hao of the Emperor Kuang-hsll, 
who is now reigning, means " inherited lustre." 

Since the accession of the Ming Dynasty there is only one 
instance of a Nien-hao being changed during the reign ; this 
occurred when the Emperor Ch'eng-tung recovered his power 
after seven years of dethronement, when he assumed the new 
Nien-hao of T'ien-shun, 

In order to convey an exact date the number of the year of 
any Nien-hao should be inscribed, but this rarely occurs on 
porcelain. The fullest date on porcelain is usually of six 
characters, generally in three columns, but sometimes only in 
two, and occasionally in one horizontal line. Like all Chinese 
writing it reads from right to left, and in the case of columns 
from the top to the bottom. 

The six-character mark was composed as follows : — Two 
characters signifying the Dynasty, two signifying the Nien-hao, 
and two more which are the same in nearly every case and 
simply signify " period " and " made." This is a six-character 
mark of the period of the Emperor Hsuan-te. It 
reads, ta ming hsilan te nien chi, " great Ming >f:^ y:r 
Hstian-te period made." Thus it will be seen that 
the most important part to the collector, the ^^ ^^ 
Nien-hao, is, in the six- character mark, contained . . "^ 
in the bottom character of the right-hand column ^U i^ 
and the top character of the left-hand column. 

In the four - character date mark the title of the 



Dynasty is omitted, so that the mark commences with the 

The above mark is written in the ordinary character, but 
what is called the " seal " character, the more archaic form of 
writing, is sometimes used, especially in the later reigns of 
the present Dynasty. Examples of both will be found in the 
following list. The other form of Chinese writing, called " grass 
text," or cursive hand, is seldom or never used for date marks. 

The date marks usually found on Chinese porcelain are 

Hung-wu or 

Hsuan-te or Seuen-tih 

I. — Ming Dynasty. 

Yimg-lo (1403-1424). 

^4 K 

1 1 

t ^ 

Hsiian-te or 



t -ft 


Ch'eng-hua or Ch'ing-hwa (1465-1487). 

4 !^ 

t ?^ t JE. 

Hung-chih or 



CMng-te or 

Chia-ching or 


Liing-ch'ing or 

Fig. 50. — WINE-POT in the form 



Wan-li or Wan-leih 



4 # 

Tieu-ki or T'ien-ch'i Ch'ung-ch'^n or Tsunc 
(1621-1627). ch'ing (1628-1643).° 

II. — Ch'ing Dynasty of Tatars. 


Shun-chih or Shun-che (1644-1661) 

i£ A 

4 * 1^2 







K'ang-hsi or Kang-he (1662-1722). 

ii. 5fr ill 
t & i 


Yung-Cheng or Yung-ch'mg (1723-1735). Ch'ien-lung or Keen-lung (1736-1795). 


Ch'ien-lung or Keen- 
lung (1736-1795). 



Chia-ch'ing or Kea-king (1796-1820). ^ ^ 



Tao-kuang or 

£ A 


Tao-kuang or 

Hsien.feng or Heen-fimg (1851-1861). 



^ * 

T'ung-cliih or 



Kuang-hsu or Kwang-shiu (1875). 

2.— Hall Marks. 

T'ung-cliih or 



Some uncertaintj has existed as to the meaning of the so- 
called " hall " marks or marks in which the word fang, »^» 


t ^' 

meaning " hall," appears. These inscriptions are often of a flowery 
and poetical character, like the following: Pi yuh 
fang che, "Made at the Hall of the jewelled 
girdle," and Yang ho fang che, "Made at the 
Encouragement of Harmony Hall." There was 
a doubt as to whether the inscriptions should 
be translated as made " at " or made " for " the 
particular hall, but it is now generally supposed that they were 
a kind of trade mark simply signifying the place at which they 
were made or the store where they were sold. 

The difficulty occurring in this connection is the fact that on 
some pieces a Chinese character signifying "pavilion" is used 
instead of one signifying "hall," and it is known that pieces 
were made for the Emperor marked with the name of the 
Imperial Pavilion for the use of which they were destined. 
The whole question is of some interest to experts, but of little 
importance to the general European collector, as they do not 
indicate the date of the pieces and are no guarantee as to 
the quality of the porcelain, as the so-called " hall " marks are 
found on pieces of all qualities. 

The words of Dr. Bushell in a paper recently contributed to 
the China Review may be taken to contain the last word 

Fig. 51.— wixe-pot in the form 
of shof character. 




on the subject down to the present date. "The term 'hall' is 
used in its most comprehensive sense, ranging from the palace 
or pavilion of the Emperor, which the piece was destined to 
ornament, down to the shed of the potter, who inscribes - his 
production with the trade mark of his humble workshop, so as 
to include the seal of the official superintendent of the imperial 
manufactory at Ching-te-chen, and not to omit that of the artist 
who decorates the vase and attaches the ' hall ' name of his 
studio as a nom de plume." 

A few of the " hall " marks are given here, but many more 
may be found in other works. 

t m 



Tseu-shun onei-ijiih Luh-i tang. "The Tiai-jun tang chi. 

tang chi. " Made 
at the Tseu-shxm 
( continuous pros- 
perity) Hall," of 
beautiful jade. 

Luh-i (waving 
bamboo) Hall." 

"Made at the 
Tsai-jun (bril- 
liant colours) 


m t ^ 

I-yew tang chi. 
" Made at the 
I-yew (advan- 
tage) Hall." 

Ta-shu tang chi. "Made 
at the Ta-shu (great 
tree) Hall." 

# 4" 

Ei-yuh tang chi. " Made 
at the Ki-yiih (rare 
jade) Hall." 

t tl 



I-yuh tang chi. "Made 
at the I-yiih (ductile 
jade) Hall." 




3. — Marks of Dedication and Good Wishes. 

The three things most desired by the Chinese are 
Happiness, Fuh ; Longevity, Shou ; and Prosperity, 

These three marks are often found to- 
gether, and the two former are represented 
by the immense variety of devices, which 
sometimes cover a whole piece. Some of 
these are given on this and the next page. 




Shou, "Longevity." A 
curious form of seal cha- 
racter known in Holland 
as the spider mark. 

^ % 

Fu-kuei ch'ang chhm. "Eiches, honour, 
and enduring spring." 

Wan shou ivu chiang. (May you 
live) "for a myriad ages with- 
out ending! " 




ChHng. "Con- 

Tachi. "Great 
good luck." 

CVang-ming fu kuei. 
" Long life, riches, 
and' honour." 
Written in the 
field of a Chinese 
" cash." 


CM-hsiang ju i. " Good 
fortune and fulfilment 
of wishes." 


□ a 

Wen. " Literature, learning.' 

D P 

Shuang hsi. "Double, or 
wedded, joy." Specially 
inscribed on pieces in- 
tended for bridal presents. 

platp: XXII. 

Ruby -hacked Eggshell Plate, painted in soft enamel colours of 
the fainille rose with gilding, and enamelled with rouge 
d'or at the back. In the centre is a large leaf-shaped 
panel, surrounded by a floral diaper, displayed upon a gold 
ground ; it contains a picture of family life — a lady seated 
in a chair, with two small boys playing beside her, one 
holding a lotus flower, the other a gilded ju-i sceptre ; tAvo 
large jars stand on the ground, and there is a table behind 
with vases, books, and pictures upon it, the accessories of 
a cultured Chinese home. The slope of the plate is en- 
circled by three borders, a band of pink with dragon 
scrolls, interrupted by medallions of floral scrolls in blue, 
between narrower diapered bands of green and yellow 
ground. Upon its border is another pink diaper, studded 
with four dragon medallions, and interrupted by four 
trellis-bordered panels containing sprays of paeony, aster, 
chrysanthemum, and Rosa sinensis ; this is succeeded 
inside by a foliated diaper of pale lilac, outside by a gilded 
belt of lotus sprays encircling the rim of the plate. 

This beautiful plate is known as the " plate with seven 
borders," the gold brocade round the leaf being counted as 
one. (Diam. 8^ in.) iSaliing Collection, No. 544.) 






^ n M 

Lu. "Rank, pro- Ruo. " State, Govern- Shoofoo. A pivot, and the most polite 
motion." ment." expression for the house of another — 

palace of the centre of the universe. 
(Mark used, 1260-1367.) 

4. — Marks in Praise of the Pieces on which they 

ARE Inscribed. 

)i)I ^ i J^ ^ 

Shxm. "Elegant." Hing. "Exalted." Yuh. "Jade." Chin. "Apearl" Ku. "An- 

or"gem." tique." 

^ ^^ ^ $. 

Shing. "Holy." Tmen. "Com- Jjf ^ ^C 

CMn ivan. Wan yii. Chvn rjii 

" Precious rarity." " Rare jade," " True jade." 

Ya wan. Ei shihpao ting chi chin. Ki yii pao ting chi chin. Tme chuan chi lo. 

"Elegant "A gem among pre- "A gem among pre- "Enjoying them- 

rarity." cious vessels of rare cious vessels of rare selves in the 

jade." stone." waters." 

Ki chin ;oo yuh. " A gem rare as jade." Wan chang shan ton " Scholarship lofty 

as the hills and the Great Bear." 



5. — Symbols and other Pictorial Marks. 

The latter are often also symbolical, especially of longevity, 
the emblems of which are the ki-lin, the deer, the hare, the fox, 
the tortoise, the stork, the pine, bamboo, plum, peach, gourd, 
fungus. The Ju-i, or sceptre of longevity is, says Franks, 
not strictly an emblem of longevity, but it is often given at 
marriages and to friends for good luck. 

I. Pa paou. — The eight Precious Things. 

Pearl or "Tide 

A coin as an em- 
blem of riches. 

An open lozenge, a 
symbol of victory 

or success. 

A solid lozenge, 
variant of last 

Kingi, Emblem of Two books strung to- 
happiness or luck. gether by a ribbon. 

A pair of rhinoceros Leaf of Artemisia, 
horns. emblem of good 


II. Fa che siang. — The eight Lucky Emblems of the 


Zun. A wheel, enveloped in 
flames, sometimes replaced 
by efmng, a beU. 

Lo, A chauk shell. 

San. State umbrella. 

Kae. A canopy. 

Hwa, The lotus. This is always 
without fillets. 


N' Yop f/ 



Fig. 52. — ch'ien-lung blue and 
white, with eight 
taoist emblems, etc. 



Kwan, A vase with 

Yu. Two fishes vmited by 
fillets ; may signify do- 
mestic felicity. 

Chang. An emblem of 

The Taoist set of eight symbols, the attributes of the eight 
genii or immortals {see p. 153), may be added here. They are 
figured on the pilgrim vase illustrated in Fig. 52. 

III. Pa an hsien. — The eight Emblems of the Taoists. 

1. Shan. — The Fan carried by Chung-li Ch'tian, with which 

he is said to revive the souls of the dead. 

2. Chien. — The Sword of supernatural power wielded by 

Lti Tung-pin. 

3. Hu-lu.— The Pilgrim's Gourd of Li T'ieh-kuai. 

4. Pan. — The Castanets of Ts'ao Kuo-ch'iu. 

5. Hua Lan. — The Basket of Flowers of Lan Ts'ai-ho. 

6. Yu Ku. — The Bamboo Tube and Rods of Chang Kuo. 

7. Ti.— The Flute of Han Hsiang Tzu. 

8. Lien Hua. — The Lotus Flower of Ho Hsien Ku. 

These emblems are found as marks and are also used in 

Joo-e, or sceptre of lon- 
gevity, and musical in- 


Peach and Bat. The peach is 
an emblem of longevity, and 
the bat of happiness. Here 
they symbolise the phrase 
Fuh skoiv shifang chuen, a 
twofold perpetuation of 
happiness and longevity. 

Pi, a pencil ; ting, a cake 
of ink ; joo-e, a sceptre of 
longevity, sjmibolising 
the phrase Fi ting joo-e. 
" May things be fixed as 
you desire." 



Wan-tse. Ten thousand things, 
everything all creation. The 
" swastika "or fylfot; cross 
of Buddha. 

Fu. An embroidered 
pattern on ancient 

Gourd. An emblem of lon- 
gevity, inscribed Ftih, happi- 
ness, in " Grass" character. 

Faou. Precious things. Incense A seal character for Show, 
Pencil and roll of burner. longevity, 


A bat. 

The famous set of eight trigrams Head of sceptre of Hare. Emblem of longevity, 
known as the Pa-kwa. longevity derived 

from the fungus. 

Stork. A taUless bird, apparently a 
stork ; below it is an engraved 
number and a zig-zag, cut with 
the wheel, a mark placed on china 
which has belonged to the collection 
in the Japanese Palace at Dresden. 


A four-leaved flower. A flower with eight or sixteen petals (Chrysanthemum). 


Jar ivith cover, painted in enamel colours of the famille rose of 
tlie Ch'ien-lung period (1736-95). The ground, enamelled 
a beautiful pink of the rouge cl'or class, is studded with 
chrysanthemum blossoms, and interrupted by reserved 
panels and medallions of varied shape. The panels are 
filled with sprays of flowers, including peach blossoms and 
lilies, pgeonies and roses, tendrilled branches of grape-vine, 
etc. The decoration is completed by diapered bands, 
enclosing small medallions, round the foot and shoulder 
of the vase, and round the rim of the cover, which is sur- 
mounted by a knob painted to represent a lotus bud. (H. 
16 in.) (Salting Collection, No. 82.) 




A five-leaved flower, peach blossom. A sprig of prunus, enclosed in a double ring. 

Several varieties of leaves, one of them with Fungus. Varieties of the Che plant, a 
the fillets that distinguish the symbols, kind of fimgus {Pohjporus Itwidus) 

Probably leaf of Artemisia. employed as an emblem of longevity. 

6. — Potters' Marks. 

These are very rare, and as the same 
many pieces, one example only of them is 
given. This is one of the least uncommon, 
and is the mark Ko Ming-hsiang, date mi- 

Potters' marks are not uncommon on 
pieces of Fu-chien white. They are im- 
pressed and -written in grass character very 
difficult to read. 

is not found on 

Ko Ming-hsiang. 



The Goddess Kuanyin. — A Buddhist divinity whose images 
are often found. She is called the Queen of Heaven, and her 
name means " Hearer of Prayers " (illustrated in Fig. 25), of 
whom a more detailed account is to be found in Anderson's 
"British Museum Catalogue" (p. 46). 

The Arhats are immediate disciples of Buddha, " Arhat " 
meaning "worthy." Images of them are placed in attendance 
upon those of Buddha in Chinese temples. 

The sixteen Arhats are to be found in the Chinese Buddhist 
Tripitaka. The modern Chinese have increased the number to 
eighteen, but two (6 and 10) are constantly represented apart 
from the others on account of the tiger and the dragon, which 
are their attributes. 

1. Pin tu lo poh lo to sho, represented as an old man 

on a rock on the seashore, tablets, and fly brush. 

2. Chia noh chia fa t'sho, seated on a priestly chair, 

with a fly brush in his hand. 

3. Poh li to sho, with MS. scroll ; an attendant with a 

gong accompanies him. 

4. Su PIN SHO is seated on a mat, his hands on his knees. 

5. NoH CHU NA, on a priest's chair, and a rosary in his 


6. Po-SHO-LO, on a rock, a crouching tiger by his side. 

7. Chia li chia, on a rock ; a scroU in his hand. 

8. Fa sho lo fo sho lo, on a stool ; a knotted staff in 

his hand. 

9. Shu poh chia, in chair before a lotus pedestal ; some- 

times a lion with him. 

10. Pan sho chia, on a rock, with a gem which a crouching 

dragon endeavours to get from him. 

11. La hu la, his hands folded before a lotus pedestal 


12. Na chie si na, with a begging bowl, from which flowing 

water ascends. 

13. Yin CHife sho, with Buddhist sceptre ; a staff capped 

with fish carried by an attendant. 

14. Fa na pho tsy, before a vase with peach branch 

without leaves. 

15. sh' to, a staff; vase with pseonies before him. 

16. Chu SHU PAN SHO CHIA, with a fly brush and seated on 

a mat. 

The God of Longevity (Shou-lao). — The figure of the God of 
Longevity is frequently found on Chinese porcelain either by 
himself or together with the eight Immortals. Statuettes of 
him are also common. He may always be known by his 
extremely tall, bald head. He is generally resting or riding on 
a stag, holding in his hand a ju-i or joo-e, or "sceptre of 
longevity." He is also found on a tortoise. He is sometimes 
holding in his hand the fruit of the fabulous peach tree, 
Fan-tao, which blossoms every three thousand years, and only 
yields its peaches three thousand years afterwards.^ 


Sir W. Franks gives the following account of the eight 
Immortals : — 

" The Pa Sien, or eight Immortals, are legendary beings of 
the Taoist sect, said to have lived at various times and attained 
immortality. They are not infrequently depicted on porcelain, 
and they are also to be found as separate figures, of which there 
are two sets, one standing, the other seated; sometimes they 
ornament the edges of plates, standing on various animals 

* The Three Star Gods of Happiness, Rank, and LongeTity (Fu Lu, Shou, San 
Hsing) are often associated, being grouped in the decoration of a vase, or separately 
moulded, as in the fine figures reproduced here (Figs. 4, 5, 6) from the Salting 
collection. — S. W. B. 


among the waves of the sea, and then* symbols occasionally 
occur as devices : — 

"1. Han Chung-le. — Said to have lived under the Chow 
D3aiasty, which lasted from 1122-249 B.C., and to" have obtained 
possession of the elixir of immortality. He is generally repre- 
sented as a fat man with a bare belly, and holds in his hand a 
fan with which he is said to revive the souls of the dead. His 
emblem is a fan (shan). He is also known as Chung-le Kwan. 

" 2. Leu Tung-pin. — Born a.d. 755. While a magistrate of 
the district of Teh-hwa, he is said to have encountered Han 
Chung-le among the recesses of the Lu Shan, from whom he 
learnt the mysteries of alchemy and of the elixir of immortality. 
He was exposed to a series of temptations — ten in number — and 
having overcome them, was invested with a sword of super- 
natural power, with which he traversed the emphe, slaying 
dragons and ridding the earth of divers kinds of evils for 
upwards of 400 years. His emblem is a sword (keen). 

"3. Le Tee-kwae. — It is uncertain when he Hved; he was 
instructed in Taoist lore by Lao Tsze himself, who used to 
summon him to interviews in the celestial spheres. To do this 
his spirit had to leave his body, which he entrusted to the care 
of a disciple. On one occasion the disciple was summoned 
away, and Avhen the disembodied spirit returned the body was 
gone. Le Tee-kwae therefore took refuge in the body of a lame 
beggar, in whose shape he continued his existence, supporting 
himself on a crutch or staff. His emblem is the pilgrim's gourd 
(hu-lu), and he holds a staff in his hand. 

"4. TsAOU Kwo-Kiu. — Said to be the son of Tsaou Pin, a 
military commander who died a.d. 999, and brother of the 
Empress Tsaou How. He is therefore represented as wearing a 
court head-dress. His emblem is a pair of castanets (pan), 
which he holds in one hand. 

" 5. Lan Tsae-ho. — Of uncertain sex, but generally con- 
sidered a female. Her usual emblem is a flower-basket 


Six Small Vases from the Salting Collection, ranging in height 
from 5 in. to 3 in., exhibiting some of the monochrome 
glazes. In the centre are two of the copper silicate de- 
velopments of the grand feu; a water receptacle (on a 
stand) of the peau-de-pSche class, displaying a pinkish-red 
ground flecked and mottled with reddish brown ; and, 
underneath, a miniature vase of sang-de-pigeon shade. 
These are flanked by a coral red vase of soft uniform tone, 
and a perfect example of the rare lemon yellow enamel of 
the reign of Yung-cheng. On the right is a foliated vase 
of the green, finely-crackled glaze, known sometimes as 
" apple-green," a pale shade of the kua-p'i-lil, or cucumber 
green, of the Chinese, which is a copper bisilicate. On 
the left stands a small vase of the flambd class, with a 
plum-coloured or aubergine ground thickly strewn with 
pale blue spots, artfully applied by the souffl4 method, to 
imitate a natural transmutation effect of the kiln. 




" 6. Chang Ko-laou. — Said to have flourished towards the 
close of the seventh and middle of the eighth centuries. He 
was a great necromancer, and used to be accompanied by a 
white mule, which carried him immense distances, and when not 
required was folded up and put away. The Emperor Ming 
Hwang summoned him to his court, but he refused to go. He 
is represented with a bamboo tube {yu-ku), a kind of musical 
instrument used by Taoists, and two rods to beat it, the latter, 
sometimes placed in the tube, forming his emblem. 

" 7. Han Seang-tsze. — Said to be a great-nephew of the 
statesman and philosopher Han Yu (who lived a.d. 768-824). 
He was a pupil of Leu Tung-pin, by whom he was carried to the 
fabulous peach-tree of the genii, but fell fi'om its branches. He 
is represented as a flute-player, and his emblem is a flute 

"8, Ho Seen-koo. — Stated to have been the daughter of 
Ho Tai, of Tseng-cheng, near Canton. She used to indulge in 
sohtary wanderings among the hills, and, rejecting the ordinary 
food of mortals, ate the powder of mother-of-pearl, which was 
supposed to produce immortality. She was summoned to the 
court of the Empress Wu (a.d. 690-705), but on her way 
disappeared. She carries in her hand a lotus flower (leen-hiua), 
which forms her emblem." 

Si Wang Mil — A fabulous being of the female sex, dwelling 
upon Mount Kw'en Lun, at the head of the troops of genii, 
and holding from time to time intercourse with favoured 
imperial votaries. According to the books of Chow, the 
Emperor Muh Wang was entertained (985 B.C.) by Si Wang Mu 
at the Lake of Gems in the West. By the borders of this lake 
grows the peach tree of the genii, whose fruit confers the gift of 
immortality, and hence she despatches the azure-winged birds. 
She is said to have paid visits to the Emperor Han Wu Ti, and 
to have become the consort of Tung Wang Kung. She is 
usually depicted in paintings as a beautiful female, and attired 
as a Chinese princess attended by two young girls, one of whom 


holds a large fan and tlie other a basket with the peaches 
of longevity. She often rides upon a phoenix {see Mayers' 
" Chinese Reader's Manual," p. 178, and Anderson's " Cata- 
logue of Chinese and Japanese Paintings at the British 
Museum," p. 221). 


The four fabulous animals so often seen on Chinese porcelain 
are — 

(1) The unicorn, or ki-lin, the head of all hahy animals. 

(2) The phoenix, or fung-hwang, the chief of the feathered 

(3) The dragon, and (4) the tortoise, pre-eminent among the 
scaly and shelly tribes. 

The dragon is the chief of the four Chinese supernatural 
beasts, and is regarded as the king of the scaly tribe. 

"There are three dragons — the Imig in the sky, the li in 
the sea, and the kiau in the marshes. The first is the only 
authentic species, according to the Chinese. It has the head of 
a camel, the horns of a deer, the eyes of a rabbit, ears of a cow, 
neck of a snake, belly of a frog, scales of a carp, claws of a hawk, 
and palm of a tiger. On each side of the mouth are whiskers, 
and its beard contains a bright pearl. The breath is sometimes 
changed into water and sometimes into fire, and its voice is hke 
the jingling of copper pans. The dragon of the sea occasionally 
ascends in waterspouts, and is the ruler of all oceanic phenomena. 
The dragon is worshipped and feared by Chinese fishermen, and 
the superstition of all classes towards it is probably a modified 
relic of the widespread serpent worship of ancient times" 
(Williams' "Middle Kingdom"). 

Mayers, in his " Chinese Reader's Manual," tells us that there 
are four kinds of Lung — 

(1) " The Celestial Dragon, which guards the mansions of 
the gods, and supports them so that they do not fall. 



Tii-Dt; ^ 

U1 PM 



3 ^' 

K O 



(2) " The Spiritual Dragon, whicli causes the winds to blow 
and produces rain for the benefit of mankind, 

(3) " The Dragon of the Earth, that marks out the courses of 
rivers and streams. 

(4) " The Dragon of the Hidden Treasures, which watches 
over the wealth concealed from mortals. 

" There are few variations of form and many of colour. The 
horns may be wanting, the body may become wholly serpentine- 
or may be exchanged for that of a winged fish, and the head 
may become shortened and lose its impressive character " (see 
Anderson's " Catalogue of Chinese and Japanese Paintings at 
the British Museum "). 

The colours vary according to the taste of the artist, but 
snow-white, yellow, and blue are perhaps most frequently 
seen, each shade having its own symbohcal meaning. The 
dragon is the emblem of the Emperors, and the number of 
its claws marks the rank of the wearer ; thus the imperial lung 
has five claws, and that of the princes of the third and fourth 
rank only four. On pieces of white Fu-chien porcelain a pecuUar 
lizard-hke dragon is often found without scales and with a bifid 
tail. It has a long head, sometimes horse-like and sometimes 
bearded like a man — this is a very old form taken from ancient 

The ki-lin. — It is difficult to decide what animal the ki-li7i 
most closely resembles, for it contams some characteristics of so 
many different creatures. 

To judge from its face, its central horn, its scaly hide, and 
its cloven feet, it was probably suggested by the rhinoceros. 
There are several different varieties of this fabulous animal, but 
it is generally represented as having at least one horn (hence its 
other name " the unicorn ") protruding from the middle of its 
head, feet and legs like a deer, and a tufted tail. 

"Besides these external marks of beavity it exhibits great 
benevolence of disposition towards other animals, and appears 
only when wise and just kings, like Yau and Shun, or sages 


like Confucius, are born to govern and teach mankind " {see 
Williams' " Middle Kingdom "). As well as being an emblem 
of good government it is also a symbol of long life, and is 
said to live to the age of a thousand years. 

The tortoise (kwei) is the least important of the fabulous 
animals, and is seen more often on Japanese than on Chinese 

Sir W. Franks says : " The tortoise was also a supernatural 
animal, and its shell was used in divination. The tortoise with 
a hairy tail is depicted in Japan as an attendant on the god of 
old age, and is used as an emblem of longevity. A Chinese 
phrase, Kwei-ho-tung-chun, signifies 'May your days be as 
long as the tortoise and stork.' " 

The feng-huang. " Feng, the name of the male, and huang, 
of the female, of a fabulous bird of wondrous form and mystic 
nature, the second among the four supernatural creatures. The 
compound of the two, feng-huang, is the generic designation 
usually employed for the bird, and is frequently translated 
' phcenix ' " (Hippisley). 

The phcenix of Chinese legend is a kind of Argus pheasant 
famous for its beautiful plumage, the five colours of which ai'e 
said to be emblems of the five cardinal virtues. 

Mr. Hippisley says that " One writer describes it as having 
the head of a pheasant, the beak of a swallow, the neck of a 
tortoise, and the outward semblance of a dragon, to which 
another version adds the tail of a fish. Very early legends 
narrated that this bird made its appearance as a presage of the 
advent of virtuous rulers, whose presence it also graced as an 
emblem of their auspicious government." 

Mr. Gulland says: "It may be well to mention that in 
auction catalogues it is referred to as the fong-hoa or ho-ho bird. 
It is said originally to have been the emblem of the Emperors 
before they adopted the dragon, and is now that of the 
Empresses. Brides in China are allowed to wear a head- 
dress in the shape of a feng-huang." 



[In this glossary porcelain is included in the term pottery. Many 
of the technical terms are explained in other parts oj the hook.^ 

Blanc de Chine. A fine kind of ivory-white porcelain, not decorated 
with colour. 

Biscuit. XJnglazed paste which has been baked. 

Boccaro. A fine kind of reddish-brown Chinese earthenware, often 
decorated with slip and bright enamels, but not regarded as 

Body or paste. The substance of which pottery is made. The 
terms "hard paste" and "soft paste" are used, but it is 
difficult to draw the line where one ends and the other 
begins. The hardest paste is that composed entirely of clay 
derived from natural feldspathic rocks, and called kaolin and 
petimtse by the Chinese. It needs the highest heat to bake 
it. Probably all Chinese porcelain is so composed. But a 
certain description of Chinese porcelain goes by the name of 
"soft paste." It would be more properly called " soft glaze," as 
the paste is hard, but the glaze is fusible at a lower temperatuie 
than that required to bake the paste. 

Celadon. A green colour like jade. The term is sometimes, but 
erroneously, applied to any piece of porcelain covered with a 
"single" glaze. 

Enamels. This term may properly be applied to the ordinary colour- 
less glaze, to the coloured glazes used in painting on the biscuit, 
to the opaque white enamels (generally stanniferous) used to 
cover ordinary porous pottery and sometimes spread upon 
porcelain ; in the English technology the term is exclusively 
reserved to the enamels used in painting over the glaze, 
which are sometimes called vitreous enamels, and vitrify at a 
comparatively low temperature. 

Famille verte and famille rose. Classes of decoration in overglaze 
enamels in which green and rose predominate respectively. 



Grand feu, the heat of the oven, 
Demi-grand feu, the heat of hard kiln. 
Petit feu, the heat of the muffle kiln. 

Glaze, the glassy covering of pottery {see also Enamels). It is put 
on in a liquid state, by immersion, by sprinkling, or by being 
blown on through gauze (souffl^). 

Gombroon ware. A term applied in the eighteenth century to ware 
imported from Gombroon, in the Persian Gulf. It may have 
included Chinese and other ware, but it is now generally used 
for a beautiful white old Persian pottery with a milky trans- 
lucency, often decorated with perforated patterns filled with 
glaze (called " grains de riz " by the French), probably copied 
from Chinese models. 

Hard paste is now made at Meissen, Sevres, Berlin, Copenhagen, 
and other places in Europe. It used to be made at Plymouth 
and Bristol, but all English porcelain is now of a hybrid nature ; 
like the hard paste, it contains china clay and feldspath, but 
to these is added a large percentage of phosphate of lime 
obtained from burnt l:)ones. 

Indian china. A term once applied to all porcelain brought by 
the East India Companies to Europe from the East ; but it is 
now believed that none of it was made in India itself. 

Kiln, or MuMe Jdln, a small oven in which soft glazes and overglaze 
enamels are baked (petit feu). 

Mandarin china. A term introduced by Jacquemart to designate 
pieces of porcelain, especially large polychrome jars, on which 
figures of mandarins and their suites were painted in panels 
surrounded by a superabundance of clumsy flowers and orna- 
ments which cover the whole ground. This description of 
decoration is later than the Ming Dynasty, and the term 
is now a trade term, very loosely employed {see Gulland, 
p. 208). 

Mertabani. A term applied by Persians and Turks to pieces of 
celadon, which are prized by them as detectors of poison. 

Pate-sur-pate {see " Slip," p. 161). 

Paste {see "Body," p. 159). 

Porcelain. A fine hard pottery. It is translucent, and partially 
vitrified. It differs from ordinary soft earthenware {faience) 
in both these respects, and from stoneware in being translucent. 


The Chinese include some stoneware in the term " porcelain," 
but it must have a clear, strong ring to qualify it. The finest 
Persian pottery is translucent, though not so highly vitrified. 

Seg'gars. Boxes made of clay for protecting pottery while in the 

Slip. Unbaked paste diluted to the consistency of stiff cream, and 
used in the decoration of pottery. It is used on common 
pottery, and also on porcelain. The highest form of this 
decoration is what is known as pdte-stir-pdte, where the slip 
is modelled into delicate and elaborate forms. 

Spurmarks. Disturbances of sui-face, generally thi-ee in number, 
found on the bottom of pieces of pottery, and caused by the 
props on which they are supported in the kiln. They are found 
on nearly all Japanese pieces, but seldom on Chinese pieces. 

Souflle {see "Glaze"). 


The following is a list of some of the most useful works relating 
to Chinese porcelain : — 
Anderson, William, F.R.C.S. — Catalogue of Japanese and Chinese 

Paintings in the British Museum. London, 1886. 
Brongniart, Alexandre. — Traite des Arts Ceramiques, ou des 

Poteries, considerees dans leur histoire, leur pratique, et leur 

theorie. Troisieme edition, avec notes et additions par Alphonse 

Salvetat. Illustrations et marques. Paris, 1877. 
Burlington Fine Arts Club. — Catalogue of Blue and "VN^oite 

Oriental Porcelain. Monkhouse and Mills, 1895. 
Burlington Fine Arts Club. — Catalogue of Coloured Porcelain. 

Monkhouse and Mills, 1896. 
BusHELL, Dr. S. W. — Oriental Ceramic Art. Illustrated with 

plates and cuts of specimens in the collection of "W. T. 

Walters, with complete history of Oriental Porcelain. Appleton 

and Co., New York, 1897. 
BusHELL, Dr. S. W. — Chinese Porcelain before the present Dynasty. 

Peking, 1886. 
D'Entrecolles, Pere. — Letters written in 1712 and 1722. Published 

in "Lettres edifiantes et curieuses." 
Du Sartel, Octave. — La Porcelaine de Chine. Origines ; fabrications, 

decors, et marques. Illustrations et marques. Paris, 1881. 



Franks, Sir A. Wollaston. — Bethnal Green Museum Catalogue of 
Oriental Porcelain. Second Edition, 1878. (This collection is 

now in the British Museum.) 
Graesse, Johann Georg Theodor. — Beitrage zur Geschichte der 
Gefassbildnerei, Porzellanfabrication, Topfer-und Glasmacher- 

kunst bei den verschiedenen Nationen der Erde. Erlautert 

durch eine detaillirte Beschreibung der Koniglich Sachsischen 

Porzellan-un Gefassammlung zu Dresden. Dresden, 1853. 
Graesse, Johann Georg Theodor. — Guide de I'amateur de Porcelaines 

et de Faiences. Collection complete des marques, connues 

jusqu'a present. 5,200 /acsiiniles. Dresden, 189-i. 
Grandidier, Ernest. — La Ceramique Chinoise. Paris, 1894, 
Griggs, William. — Illustrations of Armorial China. Privately 

printed. London, 1887. 
GuLLAND, W. G. — Chinese Porcelain. London, 1898. 
HiPPiSLEY, Alfred E. — The Ceramic Art in China. Extracted from 

the Report of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington for 

HiRTH, F., Ph.D. — Ancient Porcelain. A Study in Chinese Mediaeval 

Industry and Trade. Georg Hirth. Leipzig and Munich, 

Jacquemart, Albert. — Histoire de la Ceramique. Twelve etchings hy 

Jules Jacquemart, and 200 cuts. English Translation by Mrs. 

Bury Palliser. London, 1877. 
Jacquemart, Albert, and Le Blant, Edmond. — Histoire artistique, 

industrielle, et commerciale de la Porcelaine. 26 etchings by 

Jules Jacquemart. Paris, 1862. 
Julien, Stanislas. — Histoire de la fabrication de la Porcelaine 

Chinoise. Translated from the Chinese by Stanislas Julien. 

Paris, 1856. 
Marry AT, Joseph. — History of Pottery and Porcelain. Third Edition. 

London, 1868. 
Mayers, William Frederick. — The Chinese Reader's Manual. 

Shanghai, 1874. 
Meyer, Adolf Bernhard. — Lung-Ch'iian-yao, oder Altes Seladon- 

Porzellan, nebst einem Anhange iiber damit in Verbindung 

stehende Fragen. Illustrations. Berlin, 1889. 
Museum op Practical Geology. — Catalogue of specimens illustrative 

of the composition and manufacture of British Pottery and 

Porcelain, from the occupation of Britain by the Romans to the 


present time. By Sir Henry Thomas de la Beche and Recks 

(Trenham). Third Edition, 1876. 

Paleologue, M. — L'Art Chinois. Paris, 1887. i 

Thompson, Sir Henry. — A Catalogue of Blue and White Nankin ! 

Porcelain, forming the collection of Sir Henry Thompson. ^ 

Illustrated. London, 1878. i 

Watkins, W. — Old Indo-European Porcelain. Hereford, 1882. | 

Williams, S. Wells. — The Middle Kingdom. New York and London, ! 

1861. I 



Fia. 1. — Hexagonal Lantern of eggshell porcelain, painted with 
bright enamels, greens predominating, of the K'ang-hsi period. 
The sides are decorated with birds and flowers framed in floral 
brocade, the neck with a brocaded ground interrupted by foliated 
medallions containing butterflies. (H. lOf in., d. 7| in.) 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 427. '73. 

Fig. 2. — Ovom Jar, and flat porcelain cover, with Elizabethan mounts 
and handle, silver gilt. Painted in shaded blue with a land- 
scape, a military ofiicer in the foreground about to tie up 
his charger to a post, and with a mountain scene on the cover. 
A scroll band is lightly etched round the shoulder of the vase 
in the paste i;nder the glaze, a frequent decorative device of 
the Ming dynasty. (H. 7| in.) Salting Collection. 

Fig. 3. — Quadrangular Vase, with relief panels upon a richly 
brocaded floral ground, decorated in the most brilliant colours 
with gilding of the K'ang-hsi period. Pictures of Taoist hermits 
are painted on the neck of the vase ; books, scroll paintings, a 
lyre, and a chess-board, symbols of the four elegant accomplish- 
ments, in the foliated medallions on the shoulder ; landscape 
pictures of the four seasons, birds, and flowers in the eight 
panels of varied outline on the body ; the typical flowers of the 
four seasons, sprays of pseony, lotus, chrysanthemum, and 
prunus, in broad medallions round the foot. (H. 21^ in.) 
Salting Collection. No. 76. 

Fig. 4. — Fu Hsing, the Taoist star-god of happiness, with a boy cariy- 
ing a lotus blossom upon his arm, ready to be bestowed upon a 
favoured votaiy. Decorated with famille verte enamels of 


the K'ang-hsi period, the robe brocaded with sprays of prunus 
and magpies, dragon medallions, and borders of pteonies. (H. 
171 in.) Salting Collection. No. 25. 

Fig, 5. — Lu Hsing, the Taoist star-god of rank, with whiskers and 
drooping moustachios of real haii', carrying a jewelled ju-i 
sceptre in his left hand. Decorated with famille verte 
enamels of the K'ang-hsi period, dressed in a yellow I'obe 
brocaded with green dragons and phoenixes, and with medallions 
of lotus, prunus, and pseony flowers, the last his special floral 
emblem. (H. 16 in.) Saltinff Collection. No. 21. 

Fig. 6. — Shou Hsing, the Taoist star-god of longevity, with smiling 
face, flowing beard, and characteristically protuberant brow, 
holding a peach in each hand. Decorated in K'ang-hsi cotours 
of the faniille verte, with touches of coral red and gold, being 
dressed in a loose-sleeved cloak embroidered with shou, characters 
and phoenixes, and a robe brocaded with gilded and white 
chrysanthemums upon a scrolled red ground. (H. 19 in.) 
Salting Collection. No. 23. 

Fia. 7, — Round Dish, painted with blotches of polychrome enamels to 
produce the efiect called by the Chinese " tiger-spotted " {hu p% 
wen). The colours are green, yellow, and manganese purple 
deepening to brown, while portions of white are reserved. Five- 
clawed imperial dragons pursuing jewels in the midst of scrolled 
clouds are etched at the point in the paste under the glaze. The 
decorator has curiously hidden the fifth claw in each case by a 
daub of his darkest colour, in order apparently to adapt a palace 
piece for ordinary use. Mark written in blue within a double 
ring, Ta Ch'ing K'ang-hsi nien chih {see p. 143). (D. 12| in.) 
Salting Collection. No. 850. 

Fig. 8. — Figure of Lan Ts'ai-ho, one of the eight Taoist genii, carry- 
ing a basket of flowers, his special attribute, standing on a 
rocky pedestal. Early Ming ware, decorated with purple and 
turquoise glazes. Wooden carved stand representing a lotus. 
(H. 13| in.) Victoria and Albert Museiim. 28. '93. 

Fig. 9. — Large Fish Bowl of imperial " five-colour " porcelain of the 
Ming dynasty. Decorated in enamel colours, red, green, and 
yellow, with touches of black, in combination with under-glaze 


cobalt blue. The decoration consists of four five-clawed dragons 
in the midst of scrolled clouds, rising from a rocky sea with 
crested waves, and of a scroll border round the rim. Inside the 
rim is the inscription, pencilled in blue, Ta Ming Wan li nien 
chih, " Made in the reign of Wan-li of the Great Ming 
(dynasty)" (1573-1619). (H. ^2^ in., d. 21^ in.) Bushell 

Fig. 10. — Tall Beaker-shaped Yase of the Ming dynasty, painted in 
" five colours " {ivu ts'ai). The main decoration is a garden 
scene with rocks and palms, exhibiting two ladies in ordinary 
dress, and a group of children masquerading in fancy costume, 
two under a lion's skin, others beating drums, etc. The middle 
section is decorated with sprays of flowers, pseonies, and 
convolvulus ; the lower with fruit, peaches, and pomegranates. 
(H. 22 in.) Bushell Collection. 

Fig. 11. — Jar of the Ming period, painted in enamel colours in com- 
bination with under-glaze cobalt. An emperor is seated in the 
foreground, surrounded by the ladies of his court, two holding 
banner screens over his head, while a military procession is 
approaching from the back with soldiers holding flags, halberds, 
etc. Clouds and rocks form the background ; and sprays of 
paeony and chrysanthemum encircle the rim of the jar. The 
base, as usual, is unglazed. (H. 15| in.) Bushell Collection. 

Fig. 12. — Wine Pot, modelled in the shape of a peach, so that the 
hollowed stalk forms the spout and a branchlet the handle, the 
leaves being worked in relief on the surface of the fruit. 
Decorated, sur biscuit, with glazes of aubergine and turquoise 
tints, the dark purple running down in places and mingling 
in streaks of varying colour with the soft blue crackled ground 
in eflfective contrast. (H. 6^ in.) Salting Collection. No. 582. 

Fig. 13. — Water Receptacle for the writer's table in the form of a 
squirrel with a bunch of grapes in its mouth, the end of which 
is hollowed out to make the spout. The squirrel is washed with 
a pale purple enamel, the rim has a yellow stalk and green 
leaves, and the grapes are touched with dark purple. (H. 3^ in.) 
Salting Collection. No. 183. 

Fig, 14. — Tall Triple Gourd Yase of the K'ang-hsi period, enamelled 
in colours of remarkable brilliancy without gold. Decorated 


with rich floral brocaded grounds, enclosing vases of varied form, 
and framing broad panel pictures, two lower ones containing 
flowers and birds, and two in the middle with ogre-like monsters 
in garden scenes. The foot is encircled by a broad band of 
pseonies, and the upper segment of the gourd by a band of 
chrysanthemum scrolls, from which a ring of palmations springs 
up to ornament the neck, opposite strings of beads hanging 
down from another brocaded band round the flaring rim of the 
vase. (H. 22 in.) Salting Collection. No. 872. 

Fig. 15. — Small Fish Bowl, painted in polychrome enamels of the 
Yung-cheng period, a good example of the pure colouring, 
delicate shading, and finished technique of the imperial ware of 
this reign. It is decorated with a posy of variegated lotus and 
other graceful blossoms, tied with a wavy red ribbon, and 
sweeping round to the back of the bowl, where a pair of butter- 
flies is flying in the air. The ornamental border round the rim 
is a chain of jewelled sceptre-heads. The mark, pencilled in 
blue, within a double ring, under the foot, is Ta Ck'ing Yung 
cheng nien chih (see p. 143). (H. 5| in., d. 8 in.) Bushell 

Fig, 16. — Large Yase of the Ch'ien-lung period, richly decorated in 
enamel colours, crimson and pink {rouges d'or) predominating. 
The body is covered with an elaborate floral decoration composed 
of tree-pseonies and passion flowers, magnolia and olea fragrans, 
marguerite daisies and other smaller flowers in rich profusion. 
The rim is encircled by a band of gilded fret on a coral-red 
ground, and the shoulder by a band of similar fret in two shades 
of blue, separating the brocaded diapers which cover the neck of 
the vase from the floral lambrequins which spread downwards. 
The diapers are filled in with soft blue and pink, as in Plate 
XXII. ; the reserve panels on the neck contain landscapes 
pencilled in deep crimson, and the lotus-leaf borders round the 
foot are pink upon narrow bands of dark green and blue, 
(H. 52 in.) Bushell Collection. 

Fig. 17. — Kuan Ti, the god of war, modelled in ivory-white Fuchien 
porcelain (Chien Tz'ic) of the Ming dynasty. Kuan Yii, a hero 
of the civil wars of the third century, was deified a thousand 
years ago, and is still worshipped as a state god. Seated in a 


■wooden chair carved with branches of pines and sprays of 
prunus, of dignified mien, with traditional frowning features, 
clad in a cloak over a coat of mail, with jade-studded girdle, the 
figure is invested with the thick velvety glaze peculiar to this 
province. (H. 13 in.) Salting Collection. No. 5315, 

Fig. 18. — Group of White Porcelain. — A brush-pot {pi thing) of 
ivory-white Fuchien porcelain carved in openwork with a 
svastika fret design. A wine-cup of delicate Fen-ting ware 
in the shape of a folded lotus leaf with flower and seed-vessel on 
the rim. Two cups with pierced designs (cL jour), the left one 
in combination with solid medallions overlaid with bisctiit 
figures in undercut relief of the eight genii and the god of 
longevity ; these have to be lined for use with beaten silver. A 
pair of receptacles for fighting crickets with movable covers, in un- 
glazed biscuit porcelain. All but the first piece are productions 
of the Ching-te-chen kilns. (H. 6 in., l^ in., 2^ in., 2 in., 1 in. 
X 1. 3 in.) Bushell Collection. 

Fig. 19. — Four-footed Censer of oblong section with dentated angles, 
having loop handles, scrolled feet springing from monsters' 
heads, and a movable cover surmounted by the figure of a lion. 
It is invested with a finely crackled turquoise glaze of softest 
shades, deepening where it is thickest. (H. 12 in.) Salting 
Collection. No. 1088. 

Fig, 20, — Triple Gourd Vase, one of a pair, decorated with mono- 
chrome grounds of the grand feu in combination with blue and 
white. The upper part is painted with floral sprays and butter- 
flies, blue on white, and brocaded medallions, white on blue ; 
the lower part with broad bands of chocolate {tzu chin), 
separated by three rings of celadon {tu,ng chHng), of which the 
upper ring is crackled, the two lower rings being of plain 
texture. Mark, a double ring pencilled in blue. (H. 10 J in.) 
Salting Collection. No. 145. 

Fig. 21. — Vase of the K'ang-hsi period, with a sea-green celadon 
ground artistically decorated in polychrome enamels, cobalt- 
blue, coral-red and gold, outlined and shaded in black, with 
flowering prunus and bamboo, birds and butterflies ; floral sprays 
on the neck, and a spiral band to define the swelling shoulder. 
(H. 14^ in.) Salting Collection. No. 129. 


Fig. 22, — Vase of solid form, with the handles roughly modelled in the 
shape of elephants' heads, covered with a crackled yellow glaze 
of thick, unctuous aspect, which spreads over the rim into the 
mouth. A typical example of the "old yellow crackle," called 
mi-se by the Chinese, i.e. the colour of yellow millet seed. 
(H. 8^ in.) Victoria mid Albert Museum. 958. '60. 

Fig. 23. — Jar (or base of a gourd-shaped vase cut down) of Chinese 
porcelain, bought in Persia. Chocolate-brown ground, with a 
pair of phcenixes flying in the midst of scrolled clouds worked 
in white slip. (H. 3| in., d. 5| in.) Victm'ia and Albert 
Mtcseum. 1700. 76. 

Fig. 24. — Saucer-shaped Dish, with wavy rim, painted in dark blue 
with five aster blossoms on a scrolled ground, and foui'teen asters 
and leaves radiating up the rim, sprays on the outside. (D. 
9 in.) Afonkhouse Collection. 

Fig. 25. — Figure of Kuan-yin (Avalokita) as the Chinese " Goddess 
of Mercy," seated on a rocky pedestal, with a child on her knee, 
modelled in white Fuchien porcelain. She wears a tiara with 
an image of Buddha in front and a jewelled necklet. A lotus 
blossom at her feet is guarded by a pair of dragons ; and the 
figure of a boy in the attitude of adoration is posed upon a lotus 
thalamus on either side. (H. 15 in.) Victoria and Albert 
Museum. 19. '86. 

Fig. 26. — Large Globular Jar of Lung-ch'ing "blue and white," 
decorated with imperial dragons and phcenixes. The five 
clawed dragons are enclosed in encircling bands, above and 
below, pursuing flaming jewels in the midst of clouds ; the 
phcenixes are represented in pairs on the sides of the jar with 
sprays of pseonies so as to form five medallions, separated by 
formal flowers. The mark, under the foot, is Ta Ming Lung 
cKing nien chih, "Made in the reign of Lung-ch'ing (1567-72) 
of the Great Ming (dynasty)." (H. 17| in., d. 20 in.) Bushell 

Fig. 27. — Powder Blue Vase of brilliant tone, with reserved 
medallions decorated with flowers growing from rocks, painted 
on a pellucid white ground in brightest enamel colours of the 
K'ang-hsi period. (H. 7-J in.) Salting Collection. No. 208. 


Fig. 28. — Ginger Jau, blue and white, decorated on each side with a 
large four-lobed panel (p. 93) " tilled with a blue scaly ground 
on which two white, naked boys are relieved, and over this scaly 
ground lotus flowers are painted in deep blue ; between the 
panels are lotus flowers simply painted in blue on the white 
body." (H. 7Jg in.) Monkhouse Collection. 

Fig. 29. — Small Globular Jar of blue and white porcelain, decorated 
with scrolled ground and chevron borders, and inscribed with a 
large shtiang-hsi '* double-joy " character, intended to hold tea as 
a wedding present (see marks, p. 146). (H. 4 in.) Monk- 
house Collection. 

Fig. 30. — Bowl, with fluted sides and thin flanged rim, decorated in 
bright blue with figures in a landscape, outside, and with birds, 
etc., inside. (H. 3| in., d. 5| in.) Monkhouse Collection. 

Fig. 31. — Hawthorn Bottle. Covered entu-ely, except a light 
chevron band round the rim, with branching prunus, displaying 
large flowers reserved in white, upon a bright mottled blue 
ground. " A very rare " (p. 95) '* and remarkable specimen of 
the pattern, the white blossoms occupying an unusually large 
portion of the surface, and the whole design drawn with great 
vigour and freedom." (H. 17 in.) Salting Collection. No. 423. 

Fig. 32. — Tall Vase with scrolled handles, painted with brilliant 
polychrome enamels of the K'ang-hsi period, in artistic style 
and delicate finish. The decoration of the body of the vase is 
composed of tiny sprays of the hundred flowers (po hua) of the 
Chinese garden strewn upon a green ground stippled with black, 
interrupted by foliated medallions filled with birds, butterflies 
and flowers, fish and Crustacea. The neck is covered with the 
hundred antiquities (po ku), and the handles are pencilled in 
black on a yellow ground to simulate basket-work. (H. 21 in.) 
Salting Collection. No. 122. 

Fig. 33. — Bottle-shaped Vase of the K'ang-hsi period, painted in 
coloured enamels, green, yellow, red, and over-glaze blue, with 
touches of gold, all outlined in black. Decorated with four 
lion-like monsters sporting with embroidered balls tied with 
waving fillets, encircling bands of floral brocade and diaper, and 
rings of fret with hanging symbols. Salting Collection. No. 89, 


Fig. 34. — Wine Pot mounted upon a shaped brocaded pedestal, with a 
grotesque lion rising on one side to serve as handle, having a 
fillet in its mouth, a ball carved in open-work at its feet, while 
the cover is surmounted by a smaller lion. Decorated with 
floral sprays and scrolls relieved by black and yellow grounds. 
(H. 9 in.) Victoria and Albert Museum. 1970. '55. 

Fig. 35. — Three Snuff Bottles, painted in blue and white. The 
larger one in the middle, 4|^ in. high, is decorated with figures 
and emblems on the soft-looking crackled white ground, called 
by the Chinese Fen-ting, and is a specimen of the so-called 
" soft-paste " of American collectors. The neck is restored in 
silver. The smaller are snufi" bottles, 3| in. high, of ordinary 
blue and white, decorated with scattered medallions of floral 
brocade. Their stoppers are mounted with ivory spoons to 
ladle out the snuff. Ifonkhouse Collection. 

Fig. 36. — Small Figure of Maitreya Buddha (Mi-le Fo), now enshrined 
as a Bodhisatva in the Tushita heaven, awaiting re-birth as the 
Buddhist Messiah of the coming Kalpa. Invested in a minutely 
crackled turquoise glaze of soft shade. (H. 2-|- in.) Bushell 

Fig. 37. — Figure op Li T'ai-po, the famous poet, reclining beside his 
capacious wine-pot, designed as a water receptacle for the 
writer's table. San ts'ai, " three-colour " decoration sur biscuit, 
i.e. green, yellow, and manganese purple, with touches of black 
and white. (H. 3| in., 1. 6^ in.) Bushell Collection. 

Fig. 38. — Water Pot decorated sur biscuit in three colours (san ts'ai). 
Modelled in the shape of a carp rising from the waves, with two 
smaller fish underneath ; it has a scrolled handle and spout, and 
a large perforation above for the finger to control the flow 
of water. Brownish-purple, green, and yellow enamels represent 
the usual " three colours " of this style. (H. 5| in.) Victoria 
and Albert Museum. 1997. '55. 

Fig. 39. — Tall Vase of the K'ang-hsi period, painted with the full 
enamel palette of the time, including a lustrous black and over- 
glaze blue. The decoration is that known as 7^0 ku, " the 
hundred antiques," the surface of the vase being covered with 
bronze and porcelain vases of flowers and peacock feathers. 


dishes of fruit, apparatus for burning incense, etc., and all sorts 
of emblems and symbols, sacred and profane. The floral brocade 
encircling the shoulder is interrupted by medallions to display a 
book, scroll-picture, chess-board, and lyre, representing the 
" four elegant accomplishments " of the Chinese scholar, (H. 
28| in.) Salting Collection. No. 56, 

Fig, 40. — Quadrangular Vase of the K'ang-hsi period, artistically 
painted with a floral decoration, relieved by enamel grounds of 
lustrous black and clear apple-green. The main decoration 
consists of the typical flowers of the four seasons — the tree 
pseony of spring, the lotus of summer, the chrysanthemum of 
autumn, and the wild prunus of winter. The neck and foot 
display smaller panels of flowers growing from rocks, defined on 
the neck by two rings of chevron ornament, black and red. 
(H. 20 in.) Bought (Beresford Hope Collection) for £140. 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 261. '86. 

Fig. 41. — Three Eggshell Dishes of finished technique, artistically 
painted in the pure enamels of the early famille rose style, 
They are decorated with three diflerent scenes in the Chinese 
play, ffsi Hsiang Chi, "The Story of the Western Wing." 
The borders are covered with gilded branches of vine and 
squirrels, spreading over the rims so as to ornament also the 
under surface of the dishes. (D. 8 in.) Bushell Collection. 

Fig. 42. — Bottle-shaped Vase, painted in the maroon-red of the grand 
feu, a copper silicate, which is pencilled on the raw body, and 
afterwards covered with glaze. The decoration consists of two 
pairs of dragons of archaic design in the midst of scrolled 
clouds, supporting circular longevity characters, with flying bats, 
symbolising the "five happinesses," and of svastika and shou 
symbols with musical stones of jade suspended by beaded strings 
at the sides, emblems of long life and good fortune. (H. 11 in.) 
Salting Collection. No. 1465. 

Fig, 43. — Small Vase from the imperial potteries of the Ch'ien-lung 
period, artistically painted in pure enamel colours of soft tone, 
including shaded pinks and greens, lemon yellow and coral red, 
with touches of black and blue, after the Kii-yueh Hsiian style. 
It displays an autumn scene, chrysanthemums, marguerite 
daisies, and crimson-leaved maples, with a pair of quails on 


rocks, the decoration being completed by scrolled and foliated 
borders of varied design, and bands of rectangular fret round 
the rims. (H, 9 J in.) Salting Collection. 

Fig. 44. — Shaped Saucer of the Ch'ien-lung period, decorated in the 
interior and under the rim with flower scrolls painted in colours, 
relieved by an etched ground of crimson (rouge d'or). In the 
centre, hollowed to hold a wine-cup, a shou chai-acter is pencilled 
in gold on a green gi-ound, and the rim is covered with crysan- 
themum scrolls, crimson upon pale green. Underneath is written 
in underglaze blue the seal mark of Ch'ien-lung (see p. 143). 
(D. 4| in.). Bushell Collection. 

Fig. 45. — Medallion Bowl of the Tao-kuang period, with a floral 
decoration on an etched crimson ground of the same technique 
as the last. The medallions are filled with vases, etc., painted in 
colours, and a similar decollation, in blue, covers the interior of 
the bowl. The seal is that of Tao-kuang, figured on p. 143. 
(D. 6 in.) Bushell Collection. 

Fig. 46. — Plate of " Jesuit china," pencilled in black with a picture 
of the Crucifixion, copied by a Chinese hand from a European 
engraving. The heads of the nails on the cross, the sword-hilts 
and helmets of the soldiers, and the four dice which they are 
casting in the foreground are touched with gold, and the 
ornamental border round the rim of the plate is lightly gilded. 
(D. 9 in.) Bicshell Collection. 

Fig. 47. — Round Plate painted in China, with the arms and crest of 
the Andros family of Guernsey. A drawing had been sent, 
with the name of each colour written in the appropriate com- 
partment. The artist has copied the words " red," " green," 
" blue," but put on wrong colours, not understanding the words. 
(D. 8| in.) Monkhouse Collection. 

Fig. 48. — Octagonal Plate of the second service, with the Andros 
arms emblazoned in the right colours. The ornamental border 
and floral sprays round the rim are, as usual, of Chinese design. 
(D. 9y^ in.) Monkhouse Collection. 

Fig. 49. — Tall Vase of laquee burgautee porcelain of the K'ang-hsi 
period, decorated with a variety of scenes of agricultural and 
village life in China, inlaid in a background of black lac, which 


is spread upon the unglazed body of the vase, the rims and 
interior only being glazed. The details of the work are executed 
in thin laminee of mother-of-pearl, occasionally artificially tinted, 
so minutely carved that every leaf of a tree is distinct ; plates of 
silver are used for walls of houses, etc., and gold leaf applied at 
intervals to heighten the general effect. (H. 28 in.) Bushell 

Fig. 50. — Wine Pot modelled in the shape of the Chinese character 
Fa (happiness), the first point of the character forming the 
cover. The handle and spout are coloured yellow, and pencilled 
with black to imitate wicker-work. The sides are strewn with 
prunus blossoms touched with over-glaze blue, on a green 
ground stippled with black. The panels in the middle are 
painted with Taoist legends — a boy is seen in front offering a 
deer in a dish to an emperor (perhaps Wu Ti of the Han 
Dynasty), over whose head an attendant holds a banner screen. 
(H. 9^ in.) Salting Collection. No. 990. 

Fig. 51. — Wine Pot, a companion to the last, modelled in the shape 
of the Chinese character shou (longevity). The handles and spout 
are painted to imitate basket-work. The sides are decorated 
with scrolls of pseonies, surrounding foliated panels containing 
pictures of Taoist scenes, painted, sur biscuit, in green, yellow, 
and blue. On the panel at the back a figure is carrying a 
branch of peaches stolen from the " tree of life " ; in fi'ont he is 
presenting some of the fruit to an emperor. (H. 9^ in.) Salting 
Collection. No. 991. 

Fig, 52. — Pilgrim Bottle {Pao Yueh F'ing), -with scrolled handles 
modelled in the shape of branches of polyporus fungus, of 
Ch'ien-lung blue and white. It is decorated with a complex 
series of emblematic designs. Two forms of sAo?t " longevity " 
appear, one on the neck, the other in the centre of the wheel 
of life on the body of the vase. Between the spokes of the 
wheel are the eight Taoist emblems (pa an hsien) tied with 
flowers by fillets, while the sides and foot of the bottle are 
covered with bats, symbols of happiness, flying in scrolled 
clouds. Under the foot is the seal of the Ch'ien-lung period 
(see p. 143). (H. 20 in., d. 15^ in.) Bushell Collection. 

Fig. 53. — Figure of a Chinese lion (shih-tzu) on a pedestal moulded in 
white Fuchien porcelain, with a tube at the back to hold an 


incense stick. It has a fillet in its mouth and a ball under one 
of its fore-feet. (H. 5^ in.) Monkhouse Collection. 

Fig. 54. — Figure of a Kylin {ch'i-lin), the Chinese unicorn, with a 
scaly body and a suggestion of wings upon the shoulders. The 
pedestal has a sunk panel at the side with a spray of prunus in 
relief, and an upright tube at the back to hold a joss-stick. 
Modelled in white Fuchien porcelain. (H. 5^ in.) Monkhouse 


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